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Tittle page       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           i

Declaration      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ii

Certification    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iii

Dedication      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iv

Acknowledgements    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           v

Table of Contents       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vi

Abstract          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ix


 Background to the Study            –           –           –           –           –           –           1 Statement of the Research Problem         –           –           –           –           3 Objectives of the Study   –           –           –           –           –           –           5 Research Questions          –           –           –           –           –           –           6 Research Hypotheses       –           –           –           –           –           –           6 Significance of the Study            –           –           –           –           –           7 Scope and Limitations of Study –           –           –           –           –           7 Operationalization of Concepts   –           –           –           –           –           8


2.1 Corruption in the Public Service   –           –           –           –           –           10

2.2 Causes of Corruption in the Nigeria Public Service         –           –           20

2.3 Consequences of Corruption in the Public Service on the on the                             Development of Nigeria     –      –           –           –           –           –           23       

2.4 The Anti-Corruption Efforts in Nigeria    –           –           –           –           25

2.5 Ways of Curbing Corruption in the Nigeria Public Service          –           28

2.6 Theoretical Framework     –           –           –           –           –           –           31

2.7 Summary of Literature Reviewed            –           –           –           –           35       


3.1 Research Design   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           36

3.2 Area of the Study             –           –           –           –           –           –           –           36       

3.3 Population             –           –           –           –           –           –           –           37

3.4 Sample Size           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           37       

3.5 Sampling Technique and Method of Data Collection      –           –           38

3.6. Instrumentation and Administration of Instrument        –           –           38

3.7 Validity and Reliability of the Instrument           –           –           –           39       

3.8 Method of Data Analysis             –           –           –           –           –           –           40       


4.1 Data Presentation –           –           –           –           –           –           –           41

4.2 Data Analysis        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           41       

4.3 Test of Hypotheses           –           –           –           –           –           –           44       

4.5 Discussions of Findings    –           –           –           –           –           –           52


5.1 Summary   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           55

5.2 Conclusion            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           56       

5.3 Recommendations            –           –           –           –           –           –           56




This study examined the influence of corruption in public service on the development of Nigeria 2011-2015. It adopted a survey research method. A representative size of 202 respondents randomly selected from the population of theAkwaIbom State civil service was used in the analysis of quantitative data. Percentages and tables were used to analyze socio-demographic data of respondents while three hypotheses were formulated and statistically tested using chi-square (2) tool of analysis at 0.05 level of significance. It was found out in the study that appointment on merit in the public service tends to impact significantly on the development of AkwaIbom State. Also, it was found out that promotion on merit in AkwaIbom State public service impacts positively on the development of AkwaIbom State. Based on the findings of this work, it was recommended among others that the merit principle should be upheld in both appointment and promotion of staff in the AkwaIbom State Public Service.



1.1.      Background to the Study

Corruption is much more than a moral issue as it undermines public service delivery and democracy in Nigeria. Corruption has remained one of the major threats to social, political and economy development in any country. It is a phenomenon plaguing both public and private sectors of an economy and it is not restricted to a particular country or region. It is present in every economy and every nation.Corruption has permeated the Nigeria, public service. It has engulfed the processes of appointment, promotion and posting of staffs in public service. One of the banes of the Nigeria public service is the appointment or positing of mediocre or totally unsuitable candidates in preference to candidates of the high merit. The reason for this ugly situation can be traced directly to corruption. The selection of unsuitable candidates, which under mines efficiency and lowers performance in the public service occurs in the recruitment of junior and senior officers.

However, the level and degree of occurrence differs. Corruption in Nigeria exist at an alarming proportion in government via public service, it thrives in the areas of taking and giving of bribe, contract inflation and subsequent abandonment, embezzlement and misappropriation of public funds among others. As an important intrusion for execution of policies and programs of Government. The public service is supposed to be the driver of the economy devoid of corruption practices which will propel national development but corruption which has become systemic is limiting the efficacy of the public sector’s contribution to the development of the country.

Over the years, successive governments in Nigeria have evolved various measures, policies and programs to combat the menace of corruption, the most important of these measures according to Ijewerene (2013) are murtala/Obasanjo’sJaji declaration / confiscation of asserts  illegally acquired by Nigerians of 1970s, Shagari’s ethical revolution to fight corruption through the introduction of code of conduct for public servants of 1981, the war against indiscipline (WAI) by the Buhari/Idiagbon administration in 1984 and the ethical and social mobilization crusade by the Babangida regime in 1986 as well as WAI and corruption (WAI-C) by Abacha’s administration in 1994. These efforts were largely cosmetic and remained at the level of rhetoric, and did not result in any significant change.

Similarly, in recognition of corruption as the worst problem of Nigeria when O Obasanjocame to power in 1999, his government immediately put in place different anti-corruption institutions to curb the problem. These include among others the economic and financial crime commission (EFCC) and the independent corrupt practices and other related offences commission (ICPC). The institutionalization of these anti-graft agencies, at the inception of Obasanjo’s administration, raised the hope of Nigerians with the expectation that the change will bring to book corrupt public officials and also act as a deterrent on others (Ijewerene, 2003). Unfortunately, these programs and strategies made little impact in the war against corruption in the face of enormous political corruption in the Nigerian public sectors. For instance, for three successive years, 2001, 2002,2003, TI ranked Nigeria as the second most corrupt country in the world (Ijewerene, 2013).

The present administration of president MohamaduBuhari efforts towards eradicating and totally eliminating corruption in Nigeria embarked on financial management reforms which include the introduction of Government Treasury single Account (TSA), Integrated payroll and personnel information system (IPPIS), adoption of international public sector Accounting standards (IPSAS), and Government Integrated  Financial Management Information System(GIFMIS) were launched to further reduce the ability for corrupt officers to amass public fund for their personal or private pockets.

Despite structural reforms in the public service aimed at combating the menace of corruption, it still prevails in Nigeria and has hindered good governance and has also robbed the  masses of the social welfare that is supposed to be provided by government through it institution. The aim of this research therefore is to investigate corruption in the Nigerian public service and its influence on the development of Nigeria.

1.2       Statements of the Research Problem

Corruption has become a major problem in Nigeria public service and democracy at large. Corruption is a disease that stems from top echelons of government functionaries and politicians to public servants who accept the outcome of corruption to be normal and unavoidable pattern of the society, if one must be wealthy. This has turned the public service into a den of corrupt men and women who want to get rich by all means beyond their specified salary structure. Therefore, turning the public office to become an opportunity to “strike gold and enjoy loaves of fishes of office” produced by corruption. Such behaviorsregarded as forms of public service corruption in Nigeria include; acceptance of gratification, succumbing to inducement and of undue influence embezzlement, bribery, fraud, nepotism, and tribalism in appointment, promotion and posting, kickback contract, rigging of election , misappropriation  and  convention of public funds for personal gains, leaking tender information to friends and relations, diversion of funds through manipulation or falsification of financial records, payment of favorable judicial decisions etc.

Moreover, the sharp declines in the standards of conduct of public service and in such circumstances, governance, administration and management have lost their relevance. For example, the non-implementation of government policies, financial fraud and crises of confidence within the ministries and its agencies. The alleged fraud and embezzlement and contract scam involving the minister of petroleum for state and NNPC Group Managing Director. The minister had lodged a detailed / documented complaint with the president of the Federal Republic and substantive oil minister, on the major minister’s alleged sideling and insubordination by the NNPC Group Managing Director, in all matters on high level appointments, promotions and award of contracts well exceeding 20billion dollars.

Another is the non-implementation of budgets by the various ministries and Agencies of Government. The crisis of confidence in the health sector over allegations of fraud between the Executive Secretary, National Health Insurance scheme and the minister of Health which has resulted to incessant strike actions by health workers. These problems are no doubt caused by corruption. Worst is the fact that despite the rapid growth in the size and power of the public service, there has not been an accompanied noticeable improvement in performance to the public or increased labour productivity in the public sector. The pertinent question is how has corruption affected effective public service performance for sustainable development in Nigeria? This form the focus of the study.



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