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This study sought to determine the differences in teachers’ teaching effectiveness based on principals managerial skills in Etinan Local Government Area of AkwaIbom State. Five specific objectives, five research questions and hypotheses were stated to guide the study.The population of the study comprised Principals, Vice Principals and teachers from the ten public schools in Etinan Local Government Area of AkwaIbom State. The study sample consisted of the 20 Principals’and their Vice, Teachers’ from public secondary schools in Etinan Local Government Area, AkwaIborn State. Census sampling technique was done since the entire population was used for the study. A researcher developed instruments titled “Principals’ Managerial Skills Questionnaire” (PMSQ) and Teachers’ Teaching Effectiveness Questionnaire (TTEQ).  The instrument has sections A and B. Section A, dealt with the demographic variables of the respondents while section B covered   the variables under investigation.  The instrument was designed on a 4-point rating scale with response options ranging from Strongly Agree (SA); Agree (A); Disagree (D); and Strongly Disagree (SD). Face validation was done for the instrument. The instrument was given to three experts for validation. Two experts from the department of educational foundations, and one from the department of Curriculum Studies, Educational Management and Planning all from the faculty of education, University of Uyo, Uyo were involved in the validation. The inputs of the assessors were used to build the final version of the instrument. The internal consistency of the instrument was determined through a test-retest process. The scores generated were collected and analyzed using Mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions   and t-test to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. It was found that there is a difference in teachers’ effectiveness based on principals’ managerial skills, with teachers having principals with good communication, supervision and interpersonal skills possessing more teaching effectiveness. It was recommended that Principals of secondary schools should develop good and effective communication skills for good working relations with staff members including teachers and Government should periodically offer training for principals on best practices on educational management


CHAPTER                            TITLE                                                                        PAGE

                                                COVER PAGE          –           –           –           –           i

                                                TITLE PAGE –           –           –           –           –           ii

                                                DECLARATION       –           –           –           –           iii

                                                CERTIFICATION     –           –           –           –           iv

                                                DEDICATION           –           –           –           –           v

                                                ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS   –           –           –           vi

                                                ABSTRACT   –           –           –           –           –           vii

                                                TABLE OF CONTENTS       –           –           –           viii

                                                LIST OF TABLES     –           –           –           –           xi

                                                LIST OF APPENDICES       –           –           –           xii


Background of the Study       –           –           –           –           –           –           1Statement of the Problem       –           –           –           –           –           –           3Purpose of the Study              –           –           –           –           –           –           4Significance of the Study       –           –           –           –           –           –           5Research Question                  –           –           –           –           –           –           5Research Hypotheses              –           –           –           –           –           –           6Basic Assumptions                  –           –           –           –           –           –           6Delimitation of the Study       –           –           –           –           –           –           7Limitation of the Study          –           –           –           –           –           –           7         Definition of Terms                –           –           –           –           –           –           7


2.1       Theoretical Framework           –           –           –           –           –           –           9

2.2       Conceptual Framework           –           –           –           –           –           –           13

2.3       Empirical Framework              –           –           –           –           –           –          

2.4       Summary of Literature Review          –           –           –           –           –           22


3.1       Area of the Study       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           24

3.2       Design of the Study    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           25

3.3       Population of the Study          –           –           –           –           –           –           25

3.4       Sample and Sampling Technique        –           –           –           –           –           26

3.5       Instrumentation           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           26

3.5.1    Validation of the Research Instrument           –           –           –           –           27

3.5.2    Reliability of the Research Instrument           –           –           –           –           27

3.6       Administration of the Research Instrument   –           –           –           –           27

3.7       Method of Data Analysis       –           –           –           –           –           –           28

3.8       Decision Rule              –           –           –           –           –           –           –           28

3.9       Ethical Issues              –           –           –           –           –           –           –           28


4.1       Presentation and Analysis of Data     –           –           –           –           –           29

4.1.1    Data for Research Questions              –           –           –           –           –           29

4.2       Findings          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           32

4.2.1    Testing of Null Hypothesis     –           –           –           –           –           –           32

4.2.2    Summary of Findings             –           –           –           –           –           –           35

4.3       Discussion of Findings           –           –           –           –           –           –           36       


5.1.1    Summary of the Study            –           –           –           –           –           –           40

5.1.2    Summary of the Findings       –           –           –           –           –           –           41

5.2       Conclusion      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           42

5.3       Educational Implication of Findings  –           –           –           –           –           43

5.4       Contribution to Knowledge                –           –           –           –           –           43       

5.5       Recommendations      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           44

5.6       Suggestion for Further Studies           –           –           –           –           –           44



Table              Title                                                                                                    Page

Table 1            Summary of Mean of Teachers’ Effectiveness Based on

                        Principals’ Communication Skills       –           –           –           –           29

Table 2            Summary of Mean of Teachers’ Effectiveness Based on

                        Principals’ Supervisory Skills              –           –           –           –           30

Table 3            Summary of Mean of Teachers’ Effectiveness Based on

                        Principals’ Interpersonal Relationship Skills               –           –           30

Table 4            Summary of Mean of Teachers’ Effectiveness Based on

                        Principals’ Disciplinary Skills –           –           –           –           31

Table 5            Summary of Mean of Teachers’ Effectiveness Based on

                        Principals’ Time-Management Skills               –           –           –           32

Table 6            Summary of t-test Analysis of Significance Difference

                        in Teachers’ Effectiveness Based on Principals’

                        Communication Skills                         –           –           –           –           32

Table 7            Summary of t-test Analysis of Significance Difference

                        in Teachers’ Effectiveness Based on Principals’

                        Supervisory Skills                               –           –           –           –           33

Table 8            Summary of t-test Analysis of Significance Difference

                        in Teachers’ Effectiveness Based on Principals’

                        Interpersonal Relationship Skills        –           –           –           –           33

Table 9            Summary of t-test Analysis of Significance Difference

                        in Teachers’ Effectiveness Based on Principals’

                        Disciplinary Skills                   –           –           –           –           –           34

Table 10          Summary of t-test Analysis of Significance Difference

                        in Teachers’ Effectiveness Based on Principals’

                        Time-Management Skills                    –           –           –           –           34


Appendix                   Title                                                                                        Page

Appendix I                  Letter of Introduction             –           –           –           –           49

Appendix II                Letter of Permission                –           –           –           –           50

AppendixIII                Research Questionnaire          –           –           –           –           51

AppendixIV                Validation Letters                   –           –           –           –          

Appendix V                State Secondary Education Board, Local

                                    Education Committee Public Secondary

SchoolsinEtinan LGA Teacher Population                 –                      



Background of the Study

Teaching effectiveness is the use of skills and different teaching strategies to disseminate knowledge to learners (students) for the achievement of educational goals and objectives in the school system. Ko, Sammons and Bakkum (2013) defined teaching effectiveness as the ability to produce gains on students achievement scores, taking account of a base-line measure of the students intake. Thus, the teachers’ effectiveness is identified in relation to students’ progress measured by later attainment in learning outcomes.

Effective teachers form quality relationships that make learners comfortable and actively engaged. Moreover, effective teachers monitor students’ learning in an ongoing basis or progressively and use the information to improve their teaching. Hence, the teacher is expected to optimize the conditions for learning (Peretomode 2004). A teacher must improve teaching skills and update his/her knowledge and methodologies to be effective and relevant in the school system (Nkang2002& Al and Malik, 2012). Therefore, teaching effectiveness is measured by students’ achievements among other things.

The quality of education can be seen from the achievement of the students which is strongly influenced by the teachers’ performance (effectiveness) while the teachers’ performance is strongly influenced by principals’ managerial skills. This fact shows that management skills are the skills needed by the principal to manage the teacher, students and other material resources in the school system (Kochlar 2005, Sya, Joni and Mohammed 2018).

According to Mintzberg (2010) in Paturusi (2017) a manager is anyone who has an influence on others in the organisation. It can be the president, prime minister, administrative official, the headmistress/master, director, the executive of an institution and so forth. The manager of the secondary school in this case is the principal. The principal requires a set of qualities to manage the secondary school to achieve its intended goals. Principalship in the secondary schools education could be traced to 1887 when the government began to finance, establish and own some secondary schools as a result of 1887 Education Ordinance (Muraina 2014, Ibia 2011).

The principals’ managerial skills play very important roles in the improvement of activities of teachers’ effectiveness. Fagbamiye (2004) in Egboka, Ezeugbor and Enueme (2013) opined that the principal is essentially an organizer, an implementer of plans, policies and programmes meant for specific educational objectives. Thus, the major component of principals’ managerial skills includes but not limited to: communication skills, supervisory skills, interpersonal relationship skills, disciplinary skills and time-management skills.

Communication skill amongst all skills is a very important activity for a school manager as far as information management system at that level of education is concerned. Cole (2004) and Nwaoku (2005) opines that information should flow freely downwards, upwards and sidewards so that management and workforce know sufficiently enough to take informed and productive decisions and at the same time ensuring healthy relationships among individuals and units of the enterprise. In the school system, the principal is expected to appropriately manage information among the staff members and students.

Onuma (2016) affirmed that supervision promotes the professional growth of teachers. The principals are however the overall instructional supervisors of the school programmes. This skill helps to influence the teaching effectiveness of teachers and the academic success of the school.

Interpersonal relationship skill is a factor for a successful attainment of organisational objectives. HosseinpourTamimi, HosseinpourHarshami and Jafarzadeh (2014) asserts that upholding a positive interpersonal relationship among colleagues, sub-ordinates and superiors is the key to maintaining a successful work environment. Interpersonal skills include communication, power of influencing others, conflict management, skills of motivating people and group skill that include empowerment, team building and authority delegation (Khan, Khan, Din & Khan, 2015).

Disciplinary skill is essential for efficient operation of the organisation as more dividends are derived in an environment devoid of strife and rancour. The manager (principal) must decide on the most appropriate form of sanction in cases of offences against discipline (Kamete 2014). When there is discipline, there is self-control and adherence to constituted rules and regulations in such an organisation. This further promotes good working atmosphere and productivity.

Time-management skill in school organisation is the precision at which time is adequately managed through the use of time-table. Time-table is the specific arrangement of scheduled activity within a specified time frame, aimed at achieving the academic goals of the school system. Akomolafe (2011) in Akomolafe (2013) considers time-management as the art of arranging, organizing, scheduling and budgeting ones time for a given activity in the school system for the purpose of generating more effective work and productivity. Thus, this skill should be possessed by the principal if teaching effectiveness and school academic achievement remain the prime focus of the administration.

Statement of the Problem

Teachers’ teaching effectiveness is seen in terms of content knowledge, classroom management, cordial relationships with the students, class discipline, etc. in order to achieve the expected learning outcomes; hence, the school effectiveness. Whereas the absence of these variables tend to amount to the teachers’ less effectiveness as could be seen in the areas of lateness to class and work, poor lesson presentation, irregular and unauthorized movement from duty post, intolerance, absenteeism, etc. However, it has been observed that principals’ managerial skills can sustain teachers’ effectiveness in the school system especially when the principals exhibit some managerial skills such as communication skills, supervision skills, interpersonal relationship skills, disciplinary skills and time-management skills.

Studies have revealed that most teachers show lackadaisical attitude to teaching, poor students-teachers’ relationship, poor assessment of students, lateness to classroom, etc. These attitudes are pointers to the fact that such teachers are inefficient and ineffective in the discharge of their official duties. It is against this backdrop that the researcher is poised to examine the influence of principals’ managerial skills on teachers’ teaching effectiveness in public secondary schools in Etinan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.



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