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1.2   Background of The Study

Education is an essential process in human development. It is different from schooling, schooling is just one way in which education is provided.

Education is also defined as the act or process of educating or applying discipline on the mind of or a process of character training.

Education is a life-long process. Bamisayo (1981) defines education as a cumulative process of development of intellectual abilities, skills, and attitudes, all of which form our various out looks and disposition to action in life generally.

The contribution of social studies to our society is very pervasive, it constitutes a formidable force in equipping the young ones with the knowledge, skills and attitude necessary for the promotion of social cultural heritage required for such learning.

Commenting on the negligence prejudice and low priority accorded to social studies in Nigeria, Helen Archibong (2000) emphasized that social studies has a slow development than other subjects in Nigeria, this was partly due to the fact that the voluntary agencies which generate western education were unable to increase or popularize social studies on the same scale as literacy education since it is much of cultural base than general subjects like English and Mathematics.

Social studies lay a basic foundation for becoming a culture citizen of the country, it inculcate to the learners the basic knowledge of the norms and cultures of the society. It comprises subjects like the origin of man, the social environment, institutions, the world and its people, the family, world transport and communication. The study of the origin of man will enable the pupils to trace the history of man. The study of social environment will help the pupils to know their immediate environment. The study of the family will help the learners to be mentally alert and aware of his or her immediate family. The study of transport and communication enables the students to be able to know his language and how to communicate effectively.

In today’s increasingly complex society, everyone needs an understanding of the culture of the society. This is true not only of the person who intends to explore the society in order to make a living but each person who daily participates in the various activities of the society. We all lives in a society where everyone wants to socialize. We want to be part of the religion group, indulge in peer group meetings, be part of society cultural and festival activities and the host of other things of the society. All these activities of life come under social studies.

Social studies is made up of more than one subject, it is an integration of many subjects. Social studies are offered as a unified integrated subject at the junior secondary school level. However, at the senior secondary level, the subject is offered as government with the view of providing career option for the students.

1. 2 Statement of Problem

The Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme was launched in September 1999 with the Sole purpose of ensuring that illiteracy is reduced to the barest minimum among the adult population of Nigeria in the nearest future. In pursuance of this goal, the Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme was aim at making education compulsory at the primary and secondary school level. This is one cardinal programme of the government aimed at demonstrating its strong commitment to international policies geared towards the eradication of illiteracy in Africa. The introduction of (UBE) scheme aims at providing the nation with basic cultural knowledge which the teaching of the social studies tends to imbibe. Having said this, it is not uncommon to encounter some problems that would hinder the achievement of goals of the UBE scheme with respect to teaching and learning in schools.

The purpose of this study is to investigate the prospects and challenges of teaching social studies under the UBE scheme in schools.

1.3 Objective of The Study

The objective of this study therefore are summarized as follows.

a. To identify the relationship between performance in social studies and use of teaching and learning facilities under Universal Basic Education Programme.

b. To determine the effects of government policies on the students performance under UBE programme.

c.  To find out the attitudes of students to social studies as a subject  under UBE programme.

d. To determine the students teachers inspection and the students performance in social studies.

1.4   Research Question

The study sought answers to the following research questions

a. What is the relationship between performance in social studies and the use of teaching and learning facilities under the Universal Basic Education?

b. To what extent does the effect of government policies affect students performance in social studies?

c.  What is the relationship between students attitudes toward social  studies under UBE?

d. What is the relationship between the students teachers inspection and the students performance in social studies?

1.5   Hypotheses

a. There is no significant difference between performance in social studiers and the use of teaching and learning facilities under UBE programme.

b. The extent of government policies will have no effect on the students performance in social studies under Universal Basic Education (UBE).

c.  There is no significant relationship between the attitudes of students to social studies as a subject under Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme.

d. There is no significant relationship between the student teacher inspection and the students performance in social studies under Universal Basic Education (UBE).

1.6   Significance of the Study

A study of this nature is essential in order to know the general view of studies towards Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme. The result of the study will provide empirical basis for identifying solution needed for solving the problems facing the Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme. Also, the result of this study will help to improve and achieve the standard of social studies at Junior Secondary School levels.

1.7   Delimitation

This research work was restricted to some selected schools in Bariga Local Council development in Lagos State and it was believed that whatever is found in these selected schools will guide inference about the secondary schools in Lagos State.

1.8   Definition of Terms

Prospect:  A probability or chance for future success

Challenge: An obstacle, impediment, difficulty or any situation that requires solution.

Teaching: Is seen as an attempt to help impact some skill, attitude, knowledge and idea.

Social Studies: Is the study of man and his environment.

Universal Basic Education (UBE): Is a reform programme aimed at providing basic education to all children of school age and also adult who for one reason or other has dropped from the formal school system.     

This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research

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