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1.1    Background to the Study

The advancement in science and technology and their application in education have yielded rich dividends in almost all disciplines related to the management and organization of the education system. This applied aspect of technology in the educational discipline has tremendous capacity to provide the best possible output for both the teachers and students.

It is no secrets that there has been a continuous shift in the nature and use of technology for improving the processes and products of education depending upon the type of excellence attained by the members of the society and community all over the globe in terms of scientific, philosophical, psychological and technological progress and advancement. There remain always, a shift from the old to the new methods of teaching and learning in the education in different periods of time (Mangal & Mangal, 2011).

Computer is the finest and most important gift of science and technology to mankind. It has done miracles in almost all walks of human life. There is no area which remains untouched by the benefits of computer. The use of computer for the instructional activities is called computer assisted instructions (Mangal & Mangal, 2011). Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) is one step ahead of teaching machines and two of the uses of programmed text-books. The roots of CAI are in the work of B.F. Skinner, who was the first to introduce the concept of programmed instructions. The CAI has now taken so many dimensions that it is not simply considered as the teaching machine.

The feasible application of computer in the Nigerian classroom for teaching and learning is gradually gaining recognition as a result of great importance and educational appropriateness it offers. In the developing countries according to Award (cited in Fakomogbon et al., 2014), computers are becoming increasingly popular, especially as these form integral part of everyday activities that generate information and facilitate its fast delivery.

Computer can be used to assist instruction, manage instruction and aid its design. However, when computer is used to assist instruction, it is referred to as ‘Computer Assisted Instruction’ (CAI). Computer Assisted Instruction according to Abimbola, (1988), is the term used to describe the use of computers to provide instruction directly to students in order to simulate teaching and learning situation. It is an instructional programme presented by means of a computer or computer system (Ekiregwo, 2001).

Secondary education occupies an important position in the educational system. According to Lucas and Olaniyan (2008), secondary school is that level of education where children receive basic education that enhances their advancement to higher professional and academic pursuit. The Federal Republic of Nigeria (2014) in her national policy on education described secondary school as education children receive after primary education and before tertiary stage. It begins generally at about the age of eleven (11) years and continues for about the next six (6) years. Eya and Chukwu (2012) observed a downtrend in the quality of instruction in secondary schools, evidenced by poor students work and poor performance in external examinations.

This current trend of poor performance of students in government in terminal and public examinations in Lagos State remains a worrisome issue that has attracted the interest of major stakeholders in education across the state. Experts had always blamed the present declining performance of students in government on ineffective teaching methods. Unongo (2015) noted that most teachers use mere lecture and explanation to teach skill related lessons which often retard learning. Hence, this research study examines the effect of computer assisted instruction (CAI) on students’ academic achievement with a particular reference to selected secondary schools in Education District V of Lagos State.

1.2    Statement of the problem

The performance of secondary school students in government has been quite unsatisfactory over the years (WAEC, 2010, NECO, 2010). The external examination bodies such as West African Examination Council (WAEC) and National Examination Council (NECO) have repeatedly reported poor performance of students in government.

Moreover, several studies have also reported poor students’ academic achievement in government despite the importance attached to the subject in the national policy on education (Odili, 2006). Secondary school students’ achievement continues to deteriorate year after year in government. This has become a source of concern to all stakeholders in education in Nigeria, because no teacher in Nigeria that teaches government at any level can prove that all is well in the teaching of the subject. Teachers who teach the subject of government often complained of the challenges they face, such as lack of interest in the subject as a result of poor retention of language of expression. Furthermore government teaching in secondary school in Nigeria today still follows the traditional pattern such as lecture method which has been identified as being ineffective in ensuring students participation in lessons. Non-utilization of relevant techniques in teaching government is another contributing factor.

Majority of the studies on Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) were done outside Nigeria. These studies particularly focus on the developed countries. Researches on Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) in Nigeria are scanty. In Nigeria most of the available studies on Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) on students’ academic achievement such as Fakomogbon et al (2014);Shamsideen (2015); Chado and Okwori (2015); Cyril (2016) were theoretical studies whose findings were subjectively based on the researchers’ personal opinions. Hence, the undertaking of this research work will fill in the gap by critically exploring the effect of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) on students’ academic achievement with a particular reference to selected secondary schools in Education District V of Lagos State.

1.3    Purpose of the Study

The general purpose of this study is to examine the effect of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) on students’ academic achievement in government. Other specific objectives of the study are:

     i.        To examine the effect of computer assisted instruction on students’ retention in government.

   ii.        To find out if the use of computer assisted instruction enhances students’ participation in lessons.

  iii.        To identify current challenges to students’ academic achievement in government.

1.4    Research Questions

This study was guided by the following research questions:

1.   What is the relationship between computer assisted instruction and students’ academic achievement in government?

2.   Does the use of computer assisted instruction have an effect on students’ retention in government?

3.   To what extent does the use of computer assisted instruction enhance students’participation in lesson?

1.5    Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were tested in the study:

H01There is no significant relationship between computer assisted         instruction and students’ academic achievement in government.

H02:  There is no significant effect of the use of computer assisted instruction    on students’ retention in government.

H03:  There is no significantrelationship between the use of computer   assisted instruction and students’ participation in lessons.

1.6    Significance of the Study

The findings of the study will serve as feedback to the education sector especially the departments of Teacher Training and Development and Curriculum and Evaluation. The findings of the study will also influence policy formulation pertaining to the training of government teachers in the future. Teachers will also be aided on the efficient use of computer assisted instruction (CAI) to reach across diverse learners in the teaching-learning process.

It is anticipated that the analytical, conceptual and empirical results of the study will enhance the understanding of significant issues relating to computer assisted instruction. The result of the study will also serve as a useful tool for scholars and researchers in the field of education, who would want to carry out further research in this domain. Its findings will as well be significant to policy makers and implementers at large.

Lastly, this study will also constitute a useful and interesting text in library and would also provide a data base for future research work.

1.7   Scope of the Study

This study encompasses computer assisted instruction (CAI) and academic achievement of senior secondary school students in government with a special reference to some selected schools in Ojo LGA. It thematically explored issues relating to computer assisted instruction (CAI) and students academic performance in the district area with a view to providing a framework for future solutions.

1.8   Limitations to the Study

During the course of this research study, a lot of constraints and limitations were encountered. Collection of primary data for this study confronted a major constraint, as the researcher has to be on the field personally during the data collection processes. Time factor and financial constraints were also major challenges during the investigation.

Balancing this study with normal academic work is already a challenge to the researcher.

1.9    Operational Definition of Terms

Computer: A computer is a machine that receives, stores or processes data quickly according to a stored program.

Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI): encompasses a broad range of technique that supplements the classroom teaching and learning environment.

Students’ Academic Achievement: This is an outcome of how students deal with their studies and how they cope or accomplish the numerous tasks given to them by their teachers.

Education: it is an alround development of the individual, which could be formal or informal. In the context of this study it refers to formal education.

Teaching: is the process of imparting knowledge to or instructing students on a given subject.

This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research

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