ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF HONEY ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ESCHERICHIA COLI AND STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGEN ISOLATED FROM WOUND.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of Content
List of tables
1.1 Aims and objectives
2.0 Literature review
2.1 Wound infection
2.2 Definition of honey
2.3 Local test for honey
2.4 Classification of honey
2.5 Preservation of honey
2.6 Properties and active ingredient of honey
2.7 Mode of action of some antibacterial substance present in honey
2.8 Clinical conditions for treatment with honey
2.9 Honey as an antimicrobial agent
2.10 Practical consideration for the clinical use of honey
2.11 Adverse reaction of honey
2.12 Research on honey
3.1 Source of Sample
3.2 Sources of honey
3.3 Identification of organisms
3.4 Gram Staining
3.5 Indole test
3.6 Catalase test
3.7 Coagulase test
3.8 Antibacterial sensitivity test
Infections and other health related problems have been of great concern to human beings and chemotherapy is the main approach in the treatment of such conditions. Investigation into the microbial flora of wound began in the late 19th century and since then; improvements in techniques have facilitated the recovery, identification and enumeration of a wide variety of microbial species. Most wounds support relatively stable polymicrobial communities (Bowkler, et.al; 2001) often without signs of clinical infection (Hansson,et al; 1993).
However, potential pathogens may be present and the delicate balance between colonized wound and an infected wound depends on the interplay of complex host and microbial influences (Emmerson, 1998). The development of wound infection has deleterious effect on
patients by causing increased pain, discomfort, inconveniences and can lead to life threatening conditions or even death.
Major challenges encountered with antibiotics in clinical use are resistance to antibiotics which leads eventually to failure of the treatment (Blair 2004). Infectious diseases are known to be treated with herbal remedies throughout the history of mankind; even today, natural substances continue to play a major role in primary health care as therapeutic remedies in many developing countries (Jonathan, et.al; 2007). Over the years, there have been reports of the production of more potent antibiotics e.g. third and fourth generation of cephalosporin by pharmaceutical companies which are not readily available and expensive. Problems of various antibiotics include low efficacy, side effect which has lead investigations into natural and potent antibacterial seeming to be the right step to take. The invasion of pathogenic organism is on the rise as a result, effects are been made to develop antibacterial agent from natural sources for better
therapeutic effect (Gills, 1992). The therapies have drawn the interest of both public and medicinal communities. Current research has been focused on herbal and aromatherapy product. However, a number of their product such as honey has shown therapeutic promise.
The presence in honey of various inhibins as described by (Doid and Dzaio, 1937) has been reported by several investigators. Honey was used to treat infected wound as long as 2000 years ago before bacterial were discovered to be the cause of infection in c.50 AD, Dioscorides described honey as been “good for all rotten and hollow ulcers” (Gunther, 1959). More recently, honey has been reported to have an inhibitory effect to around 60 species of bacterial including aerobes and anaerobes, Gram positive and Gram negative (Molan, 1992). The current prevalence of the therapeutic use of ancient remedies, include honey committee on science and technology.
1.1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
1. To determine antibacterial potential of honey.
2. To investigate the mechanism of antibacterial action of honey.
3. To determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of honey on bacterial isolates from wounds of human beings.
4. To yield additional knowledge such as the possible dilution of honey sample and activity of the honey sample in bacterial infection.