The extent of use of instructional materials for effective teaching – learning of mathematics in junior secondary school.

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1.1      Background of the study

In teaching, it is highly desirable to know exactly what one aims to achieve as it is in all great undertaking. Instructional materials according to Wiki (1998), are kind of tools or equipment that can help the instructor effectively in theory teaching classroom or in practical assessment. They are also materials that aid in the transference of information from one to another. Also Ilori (2000) pin-pointed that instructional material are aids the teacher uses to arouse the interest of the learner there by enabling the learner to gain direct experience. Instructional materials are assumed to have being in place right from the primary school level but if not properly utilized, enhancement of learning is thwarted. Teaching at any level requires that the students be exposed to some form of simulation. Adekunle (2008) in Dr. (Mrs) E.O kobia (2011) noted that teaching resources means anything that can assist the teacher in promoting teaching and learning. When the students are given the chance tolearn through more senses than one they can learnfaster and easier.According to Nwafor.C. E and Eze, S.O (2014) instructional materials refer to materials thatare used to facilitate teaching and learning. Itenables the teacher communicate ideas or concepts with ease as they appeal to many senses at a time. The learner can see touch, smell or taste therebymaking learning more meaningful. This agrees with the Chinese proverb that state: I hear, i forget,i see,i remember and i do,i understand.The use of instructional materials provides the teacher with interesting andcompelling platforms for conveying informationsince they motivate learners to learn more. Furthermore the teacher is assisted in overcoming physical difficulties that could have hindered hiseffective presentation of a given topic. Larson (2001) quoted Lane (1994) who noted that the use of electronically mediatedinstruction to duplicate the traditional face to faceclassroom has resulted in a shift from teacher3 tostudent3centred classes. In this situation theresponsibility for learning is shifted to the students.The teacher facilitates the learning by acting as a coach resource guide and companion in learning.The use of instructional materials does not onlyencourage teachers and students to work collaboratively but also results in more cooperativelearning activities among the students. Ikerionwu(2000) refers to instructional materials as objects or devices which help the teacher to make learningmeaningful to the learners. Similarly, Ezegbe(1994) classified them into two as visual materials made up of reading and non reading materials and audiovisual materials comprising electricallyoperated and nonelectrically operated materials. Business studies are a subject that depends on the use of a number of resources. Osakwe and Itedjere (1993) summarized these resources as textual like books, audio-visual and human resource. They stated that these resources are either used individually or collectively in any meaningful teaching and learning situation. The purpose of instructional materials is to promote efficiency of education by improving the quality of teaching and learning.  Incorporating these tools and materials present, support and reinforces teaching. According to Aduwa-Ogiegban and Imogie (2005) these materials and resources including audio tape recorders, video tape recorders, slide projectors, opaque projectors, overhead projectors, still pictures, programmed instruction, filmstrip, maps, chart, graphs, and many more offer a variety of learning experiences individually or in combination to meet different teaching and learning experience. Other investigators including Jimoh (2009), Nwanyanwu (1999) and Ogbondah (2008) have similarly emphasized the importance of instructional materials and resources in the effective delivery of business studies lessons in secondary schools. These views have been corroborated by international investigators including Blick, Berson and Coutts (2003), Killen (2006), Dahar and Faize (2011) they observed that while some educators are fascinated by the potential of instructional materials in enhancing teaching and learning, other teachers logged behind in using instructional materials to teach. However, achieving these laudable goals of conscientious utilization of instructional materials and resources in business studies teaching and learning has been very challenging in developing countries such as Nigeria. Nigeria teachers operates from a deficient environment where teaching and learning is seriously impoverished particularly in the rural setup. And even in the urban areas only few schools are connected to the national grid basic facilities like pipe borne water and electricity.



Since the inception of National Junior Secondary school Business studies curriculum in Nigeria, few studies have been devoted to evaluating the availability and utilization of instructional materials and resources in the teaching of business studies in the Junior Secondary school of Nigeria. Business studies teachers face both old and new challenges and need to evolve strategies to engage learners in activities that are active, meaningful and challenging. In this view the researcher wants to investigate extent of use of instruction materials for effective teaching and learning of Business Education in junior secondary school.



The main objective of this study is extent of use of instruction materials for effective teaching and learning of Business Education in junior secondary school. But for the successful completion of the study; the researcher intends to achieve the following sub-objectives;

1.   To examine the extent at which instructional materials in used in teaching and learning business studies in Nigeria secondary school

2.   To identify the value added or importance of instructional materials to teaching and learning in business studies

3.   Identify the types of instructional materials being used for teaching in order to achieve students’ academic performance in business studies.

4.   To identify methods to improve the use of instructional materials in business studies

5.   To ascertain the extent to which these instructional materials are being utilized in teaching and learning of business studies in junior secondary school



For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

H0: there are types of instructional materials being used for teaching in order to achieve students’ academic performance in business studies

H1: there are no types of instructional materials being used for teaching in order to achieve students’ academic performance in business studies

H02:There is no significant relationship between the extent of use of instructional materials and the teaching and learning effectiveness of business studies

H2:there is a significant relationship between the extent of use of instructional materials and the teaching and learning effectiveness of business studies



It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of benefit to the federal ministry of education as the study will help the ministry to provide adequate instructional materials to junior secondary schools in Nigeria. It will enlighten them on the extent of use of instructional materials in the teaching to learning of business studies and even bring into awareness how important it is to both the teachers’ teaching effectiveness and students’ academic performance. The study will also be of great benefit to the researchers who intends to embark on research on similar topics as it will serve as a guide. Finally, the study will be of great importance to academia’s, lecturers, teachers, students and the general public.



The scope of this study covers extent of use of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of business education in junior secondary school. In the course of the study, the researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;


a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study


b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.


c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.




EXTENT: The area covered by something.


INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL: Instructional materials are the tools used in educational lessons, which includes active learning and assessment. Basically, any resource a teacher uses to help him teach his students is aninstructional material


EFFECTIVE: Successful in producing a desired or intended result.


TEACHING: Perhaps the most significant difference between primary school and secondary school teaching is the relationship between teachers and children. In primary schools each class has a teacher who stays with them for most of the week and will teach them the whole curriculum.


LEARNING: Learning is the act of acquiring new or modifying and reinforcing existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences which may lead to a potential.


BUSINESS EDUCATION: Business education involves teaching students the fundamentals, theories, and processes ofbusinessEducation in this field occurs at several levels, including secondary education and highereducation or university education.


JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL: Education in Nigeria is overseen by the Ministry of Education. Local authorities take … Students spend six years in Secondary School that is 3 years of JSS (Junior Secondary School), and 3 years of SSS (Senior Secondary School).



This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

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