Staff Motivation As Effective Instrument In Enhancing Productivity In Business Organization (A Case Study Of Nitel Limited Enugu)
The purpose of the study is to identify the staff motivation as effective instrument in enhancing productivity in a business organization (A case study of NITEL Limited Enugu). Data was collected by means of questionnaires administered to the three hundred and eight respondents of NITEL Limited Enugu with a sample size of seventy five (75) workers. Other sources of was collected from NITEL journals and newsletters. Date was analyzes using percentage presentation and tabular tables. Major findings were as follows: All the organization under study has effective staff development. The motivation of staff and incentives allowed were base on organization goals achieved. Lack of staff motivation and development policy could cause an irreparable loss to the organization that ignores it. The two findings above according to them encourage staff to work harder so as to enjoy higher upgrading of salary and allowance including bonuses. Effective staff motivation policy creates stability of workers. Based on these findings the following recommendations were made. All categories of workers should have chances of development as that they will be allowed and concentrated on between level. Motivation of staff should be encouraged so that the talented should not divert to other communication industries.
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 9
1.3 Objective of the Study 12
1.4 Scope of the Study 13
1.5 Research Question 14
1.6 Significance of the Study 14
1.7 Limitation of the Study 15
1.8 Definition of Terms 17
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 19
2.1 Introduction 19
2.2 Problem of Staff Motivation 23
2.3 Effect of Staff Motivation 24
2.4 Ways of Improving Staff Motivation 26
2.5 Major Theory of Staff Motivation 28
2.6 Some Motivational Concepts 35
3.0 DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION
AND RECOMMENDATION 44
3.1 Discussion or Result Findings 44
3.2 Conclusion 46
3.3 Implication 48
3.4 Recommendation 49
3.5 Suggestion for Further Research 50
Appendix I 54
There was no such word as motivation before 1330, although the practice of incentive and leadership praise flourished in the temple of phad as early as 2000BC. Chanalya in his Arthashasta written in about 300BC mentioned about the existence of motivation whop reserved courage by the phad’s kingdom to bring and spirit a work force at subordinate to a greater level and height.
It is of Germanic origin through some people trace its organization to the French word “Incenticia” and Italian word “Carrito” it referred to a bench for incentive and motivating workers in organization. The first place were motivation took effect was in Scotland in the year 1342.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The term motivation gives different meanings to different people. Motivation has been broadly defined as ‘an internal psychological process whose presence or absence is inferred from observed performance” (NWACHUKWU 1983). As such it has true basic characteristics
It is goal directed: It seek to achieve an objective
It is goal directed: It seek to achieve an objective
It results from a felt need: An urge directed to wards a need; Nwachukwu also succinctly put motivation as that engineering force that induces or compels and maintain behaviour. Human behaviour is an intangible process that derives the individual towards a resultant state behaviour.
Because is an intangible process, it becomes one of the major problems confronting management.
How to make a worker or workers perform assigned tasks to meet or surpass predetermined standard. How to make the worker achieve an organizational goal and objective. There are several human physiological basis of motivation. There are categorized into three areas namely:
What comprise or motivated behavioural sequence? The deprivation of some physiological required substance give rise to a sate of tension and drive within the human.
How can the strength of physiological drives be studied? Two methods which have been mostly used are: the setting of one drive against another and the obstruction – box method. In the case of human being physiological drives become modified by cultural influences shortly after birth.
What are the characteristics or the various physiological drives? While the hunger drive is associated with stomach contractions, the essential source is not entirely clear. However, staff or employee motivation is an organization or business outfit is a management function.
Management must create real or imagined need for the employee to aspire to. A real need could be a desired to achieve through promotion, increase in wages or enjoyment are with a chauffeur, etc. like earlier mentioned in this work, that staff motivation is management function. It therefore calls for more participatory styles of management.
Employees are made to feel a part of the business organization they work for, to share the corporate goals of the enterprise. This is more the reason why more is not necessarily the condition for employee to say at present job, because here are other jobs that they would not do for the same or such higher pay. A given wage does not finally decide which employment to take up.
This, also remarkable underscores why (Goldhaber, 1990, p. 1) stated that workers are employee performance of the job depends on having the necessary information most people or staff would not carry on working at their job, could not in fact, unless they were paid, money is a necessary condition for things to stay at their present job. But, it is not however; a sufficient condition there must be other motivational factors for them to stay in present business organization.
Motivational theory is concerned with the whole range of reasons that people have for remaining in a particular employment, and working consecutively. There are number of theories, none of which need detail us beyond noting that the more modern ones call for a more management participatory style.
Having known the definition of motivation, it is important to enumerate the roles of motivation. Roles in this content are the part we play or how we relate and behave with others.
Motivation improves and increase learning outcomes: In the learning process, for instance, motivation helps students to acquire more favorable disposition towards learning, which the result to improved and increased learning outcome. This is also application in an organization. Motivation makes the staff to commit to their works.
Motivation stimulates staff to higher level of achievement: When staff performs and achieves success, it is established that if he is motivated, he will strive to achieving higher. Thus it stimulates staffs to higher levels of achievements in an organization.
Motivation can lead to self-discovery and independence inquiry: This is because it provides the desire for staff to want to discover things and make necessary inquiry independently.
Motivation if well packaged by management creates staff satisfaction: Staff satisfaction is regarded as the apex goal of most managers since the contention that a satisfied staff has a better attitude to work than a dissatisfied employee thereby giving rise to enhance productivities in the business organization.
Furthermore, staff satisfaction would lead to productivity, research findings show that well motivated or satisfied staff necessitates a sustained higher productivity over a period of time. There is no doubt, increase growth of the business organization as well as enhanced a strong economic base for the organization.
However, it is quite unfortunate that so many business organizations in our great country Nigeria are so much focused of profit maximization, and ignores the need for staff motivation which is an effective instrument in enhancing productivity in their business. They instead, consider the financial involvement. They see staff motivation as being a waste rather than investment.
This point, it is important to see some key factors influencing staff productivity. These factors include:
Technological know-hoe or skill
Attitude to work and level of technology.
Among the above listed factors, the most important of all is the physiological drive.
The growth of any business outfit therefore lies on the management participatory motivational provision for the staff benefits. The need for staff motivation for increased productivity becomes a necessary management function in contemporary business world. Not only that a motivated staff increases productivity, it also ensures a spirit of belonging on the part of the staff of the organization and business enterprises.
Therefore, it is truism, that staff motivation is an effective instrument in enhancing productivity in a business organization. Hence staff motivation serves as a veritable and powerful instrument in enhancing productivity of any organization. Research into this, topic for the findings, result and recommendation, you will get later in this work.
The concern of government establishment about performance is indirectly a concern about motivation. Indeed, high performance will remain elusive to organization/NITEL without adequate staff motivation. Agu (2003:318) optioned that “commitment of employees is a reflection of level of their motivation).
Therefore, the special role of motivation on staff particularly in NITEL cannot be over emphasized, because it changes workers attitude or response. It is in view of foregoing that NITEL deemed of necessary and imperative to motivate their staff in order to ascertain the desirable attitude work.
That is the reason why Agu (2003:20) optioned that no matter how skillful or able a worker might be, if he backs the motivation such latent capacity cannot be transformed into a meaningful performance. Therefore motivation is very necessary.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In NITEL, workers are faced with an increased problem of financial constraints, caused by the approach of government on issues, which result to poor payment of salaries and wages to staff, poor transportation, irregular payment to remuneration, poor working conditions, inadequate facilities and infrastructure, inadequate accommodation, lack of staff promotion, poor working condition, inadequate medical care for most average workers, low level of staff motivation, no payment of allowance etc. to achieve the organizational goals and objectives, government should give the manager/ management to follow their set goal to the latter. And also, inadequate training and man-power development lowers the smooth running to activities in NITEL, even when training are meant for overseas, because of the monetary involvement, the top manager choose to go for it. Learning in spring up of many private communication industries that make sure that they run down the government owned industry. This situation creates more problems to their workers that they adopt poor attitude approach on their work place.
Staff have different goals and objectives. Some would prefer to work very hard and get satisfied at last, some workers aim might be just to contribute to the job while others prefer working for period for some, the reverse is the case, they may not want to leave the office of may even prefer to say in office as long as possible while some may have and objective that is difficult to define.
As the case may be to attain effectiveness and efficiency in NITEL, motivation must be set into in order to enhance workers positive response to work. The challenges emanating from new technologies such as the computer, economic and political policies, can be easily cope with if employees undergoes some is service training form time to time to keep them abreast with new changes, improves the quality and level of education, job/skills and their competency.
However, the problematic area of this research work is to determine the following.
The extent to which NITEL can motivate workers to effective and desirable performance in the job.
To seek the effect of the said motivation of workers attitude to work in organization with particular reference to staff of NITEL limited Enugu.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this research study is to make a systematic study of the staff motivation as instruments for enhancing, and increasing productivity in a business organization (NITEL organization as a case study). This is in order to ascertain whether employees of NITEL establishment should be most motivated positively or negatively to ensure maximum performance. It is also the intention of the researcher to be sure of:
The reaction of employees when motivated
To ascertain the motivational tool employee by NITEL ltd, for proper employee’s performance to be achieved.
To determine the employees reaction when not motivated.
To asses the result of lack of staff motivational policy in the organization.
To ascertain the measure to ensure sufficiency in organization through motivation.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this stud covers a particular business organization NITEL limited Enugu.
NITEL limited is situated in Okpara Avenue in the centre of Enugu metropolis. The organization is made up of numerous people from different ethnic group of Nigeria.
This study is limited only to staff motivational aspects in the organizational. This is as a result of limited time, finance and constraint convenience.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
Does the staff of NITEL have an effective and efficient motivational package?
What motivational measures such as enhanced pay packages, training, seminars workshops, retraining opportunity, healthy environment and other incentives etc. are given to the staff by the manager/management
How and what extent does management of NITEL encourage staff personnel motivational policy?
When and how could better and adequate motivated staff lead to improve quality of service, rendered by the NITEL organization?
1.6 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
The study will be an important tool in encouraging the NITEL staff as well as the management to realize the impact of motivation, and then putting the idea into practiced in their organization so as to meet to their organizational aims and targets.
The study will also serve as a useful instrument to the policy makers in the other communication companies and this will be beneficiary to their entire staff/employees.
The findings of this research is to see if it will be of help to the manager/management to appreciate the relevant of motivation as a means of arousing or encouraging individuals and staff/employee for the positive efforts they made in the service.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
As the researcher, I encounter numerous difficulties in eh course of carrying out this research work.
This limitation and difficulties are elaborated below.
Finance: This is one of the difficulties encountered in course of carrying out this research work. The cost of purchasing the material that serves as a guide lien in carrying out this work, the cost of typing of each copies of this work is so high and also considering the number of pages I covered, as well as binding the work, even the cost of transportation that covers me to the area of stud (NITEL) to get an accurate information of the organization (NITEL) is so high not minding the number of times I went their. This is the major difficulty I encounter considering other limitations.
Time: The stipulated them was too short, as the semester was very shot and I have other course to read and numerous assignments and quizzes, which makes me to find it difficult to the time constraint. I have to minimize the little time I have in order to achieve them, as they are all of equal important to me, the whole of them has to be combined in order to excel in the field of my study.
Distance: From where I am to the area of my study, the distance is too far, this has hindered me from going to that place (NITEL) frequently. Even the fear of heaving accident has been limiting me from going frequently to the area of my study.
Non-cooperation of Staff: Due to non-cooperation of staff, the total number of people that responded to my interview is smaller than expected.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
There are so many terms used frequently in this project work which is of great important to be defined to enable the reader understand the world and it usage in a sentence.
It is on this background that an attempt is made to define some of these terminologies used in this project work.
Staff: The employee of an organization.
Motivation: An act of moving arouses, gearing or involving a person into action.
Constraint: A restriction
Effect: Result, outcome of an action, attitude to work. Behaviour of an individual towards work.
Productivity: The output of the resources employed in the management of an organization.
Pay Package: This involves wages and salaries and other remuneration of incentives paid to workers.
Organization: An organized group with a particular purpose, e.g. a business.
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