Nutritional Composition And Cyanogenic Content Of Gari Samples In Osun State

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NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION AND CYANOGENIC CONTENT OF GARI SAMPLES IN OSUN STATE

 ABSTRACT
Six samples of Cassava product (garri) were collected from different processing centres in Osun state and subjected to proximate and cyanogenic analysis to determine their nutritional composition and safety for human consumption. At the end of the analysis, the results is vary because of climate, weather, and nutrient of the soil. All the samples met the standard recommended by IITA 2005 and FSAN 2004. And thus safe for human consumption.

 LIST OF TABLES
Consumption pattern by zone and cassava product                                                  16
Daily consumption of cassava per capital                                                                 18
Frequency of cassava consumption                                                                           19
Daily processing capacity by scale of operation and product                                   21
Cassava demand estimates by president’s initiative                                                 26
A conservative estimates of demand                                                                        27
Middle of the road, estimate of potential demand for cassava                                 27
The nutritional supplement provides by gari                                                             36
Proximate analysis (%) and cyanogene content of gari sample                                 56

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Tittle page                                                                                                       i
Dedication                                                                                                      ii
Certification                                                                                                    iii
Acknowledgement                                                                                          iv
Abstract                                                                                                          v
Tableof content
Chapter One
1.0       Introduction                                                                                        1
2.0       Chapter two                                                                                      

  1. Literature review                                                                                 3

2.1       Cassava                                                                                               3
2.11     Composition of cassava                                                                      4
2.12     Economic impact                                                                                4
2.13     Uses                                                                                                    6
2.14     Biofuel                                                                                                            7
2.15     Animal feed                                                                                        8
2.16     Ethnomedicine                                                                                    8
2.17     Various ways ofn using starch industries                                           8
2.18     Food use processing and toxicity                                                       9
2.19     Harvesting                                                                                           10
2.20     Post harvest handling and storage                                                      11
2.21     Pest                                                                                                     12
2.22     Processing and utilization                                                                   13
2.23     Future targets                                                                                      21
2.24     New initiative                                                                                     24
2.25     The way forward                                                                                27
2.26     Gari                                                                                                     31
2.26.1  Types of gari                                                                                       31
2.26.2  Variation                                                                                             32
2.26.3  Nutritional composition of gari                                                           33
2.3       Cyanogenic glucosides                                                                       34
2.31     The compounds                                                                                   34
2.32     Sources                                                                                                35
2.33     Human health effects                                                                          35
2.34     Neurological effect                                                                             36
2.35     Estimates of dietary exposure                                                             37
2.36     Factor influencing risk                                                                        37
2.37     Safety assessments                                                                              38
2.38     Safety and regulation limits                                                                39
Chapter three                                                                                   
3.1       Materials                                                                                             40
3.2       Method                                                                                               40
3.21     Proximate analysis and cyanogenic content of gari samples              40
3.21.1  Determination of moisture                                                                  40
3.21.2  Determination of ash                                                                          41
3.31.3  Determination of crude fibre                                                              42
3.21.4  Determination of fat                                                                           43
3.21.5  Determination of protein                                                                    43
3.21.6  Determination of cyanogenic glucosides                                            44
Chapter four                                                                                                
4.1       proximate analysis (%) and cyanogenic content of gari sample         45
4.2       Discussion                                                                                           46
Chapter five                                                                                      
5.1       Conclusion                                                                                          47
5.2       Recommendation                                                                                47
Reference                                                                                                        48

CHAPTER ONE
1.0     INTRODUCTION
            Cassava is an important source of food in Africa as an important source of raw materials for the industries. More than any other crop in Africa, cassava has assumed great importance in Africa Agriculture and food supply. The reasons for this are because of the following features which cassava posses.

  1. Cassava is highly adaptable to wild Agro-ecological conditions and gives relatively high yield on poor soil.
  2. Cassava has high drought tolerance and can survive the long dry season characteristics of many parts of Africa.
  3. Cassava has no fixed planting and harvesting time and its production require relatively low skill.
  4. Cassava is relatively tolerant to common pest, which devastate other crops easily.

In spite of the above advantages, cassava has some limitations which affects is utilization and militates against its marketing beyond its region of propagation. These limiting factors include the following;

  1. After harvesting, cassava deteriorates very fast than other roots and tuber i.e. it has poor post harvest keeping qualities.
  2. Cassava is bulky to transport and storage.
  3. Cassava, like some other crops e.g. sorghum contains some potentially toxic component,  referred to as cyanogenic glucoside or linamarine
  4. Cassava has low protein content.

Because of the above limitations, there are some myths that are being propagated by enemies of cassava. Some of these myths are

    1. That cassava is an inferior food crops. This is lie being propagated about cassava. The propagation of this myth support their carat with the fact that cassava consume it for its high energy content therefore because cassava is an important source of carbohydrate and energy it is wrong to claim that it is an inferior food.
    2. Another myth is that it is a woman’s crop. The reason for this myth is the                        believed that only women are involve in the cultivation and processing of cassava. It is known today however that men and women, children and adult are involved in cultivation and processing of cassava.
    3. That cassava is a dangerous and toxic crop. This is a lie too because cassava contains no toxin. Cassava only contains some cyanogenic glucosides e.g. linamarine which when hydrolyzed yield the toxic hydrogen cyanide.

It should be noted that there are other crops apart from cassava e.g. sorghum which contain cyanogenic glucoside and these other crops are not been labeled as dangerous crop. within the past 30years, however and mostly through the effort of IITA, cassava cultivars with low cyanogenic glucoside content have now been popularized.
Consequently, this project is designed to achieve the following aim and objectives.

    • To collect samples of gari from Gari processing centres in Osun State.
    • To evaluate the nutritional and cyanogenic contents of Gari samples collected.
    • To compare the results of evaluation with the standard.

 

 

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