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Planning helps an organization chart a course for the achievement of its goals. The process begins with reviewing the current operation of the organization and identifying what needs to be improve operationally in the upcoming year. From there, planning involves envisioning the result the organization wants to achieve and determining the steps necessary to arrived at intended destination success, whether that is measured in financial terms, or goals that include being the highest-rated organization in customer satisfaction.

Planning promote term building and a spirit of cooperation. When the plan is completed and communicated to members of the organization, every ones knows what their responsibilities are, and how other areas of the organization need their assistance and expertise in order to complete assigned tasks. The see how their work contributes to the success of the organization as a whole and can take pride in their contribution conflict can be reduced when top management solicits department or division manager’s input during the goal setting process. Individual are less likely to resent budgetary targets when they had a say in their creation. Planning helps organization get a realistic view of their current strengths and weakness relative to major competitors. The management team sees area where competitors may be vulnerable and then craft marketing strategies to take advantage of those weaknesses.

Observing competitors action can also help organization identify opportunities they may have overlooked, such as emerging international markets or opportunities to market products to completely different customer groups.

In an organization planning has been a part of economic history for almost 5,000 evidence suggest that in agrarian economy most economic activities as governed by changing seasons and ran in short-term cycles of less than one year.

Long range planning of more than one, although notable, was conducted by a few institution and individual extant records indicate the extensive use of plan in empire building, road paving, war waging, temple construction, and the like, not until the industrial revolution in the United States, though to have begun about 1860, did the scope and style of economic activity dramatically change. The first major industrial expansion began with factories in the Northeast and the canal throughout the middle-Atlantic States. The Owners and developers employed long-term plan for the construction of their enterprises but not necessarily for their operation. For the most part, they made decision without the benefit of research and analysis, since these businesses served regional market masked poor business planning with the subsequent development of a national rail system, economic activity become both more urban and national in scope. The rapid growth of the economic and the complex system it spawned called for new and sophisticated management techniques.

With Samuel F.B. Moses (2011) invention of the telegraph in 1844, managers gained the ability to coordinate and to communicate with unprecedented speed and efficiency. The era of the railroad hastened industrial development so that by the last quarter of the 19th century, manufacturing replaced agriculture as the dominant national industry. With the onset of the great depression  companies recognized the need for professional managers who applied scientific principles in the planning and control of an enterprise. Business planning, however as it is known today was not popular in Nigeria until after productivity as established.

The failure of most business today is caused by the way through which it had been run and managed by its management. It is not that the reasonable profit are not make but due to lack or inadequate planning which is an effective instrument in the business development. It has been noticed that public organizations and most firm in the public and private sectors have not lived up to expectation; this hinders the development of our economy.

  • Lack of ability to coordinate: This motivate other people either as individual or groups to work hardly.

This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research

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