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       This research work is on the national directorate of employment and unemployment problem in Imo state.

The research work reviewed that before the creation of the National directorate of employment (NDE) in the state in 1986. There had been a very high rate of unemployment. The body NDE was establish to help correct the imbalance between the employed and the unemployed in the state. Many writers traced the various problems that had occurred because of unemployment and many steps to solutions were also treated.

Unemployment was reviewed under global unemployment trends, unemployment in Nigeria, government policies towards unemployment and the national directorate of employment (NDE). From the analysis of findings, the researcher was able to observed that the N.D.E. contributes immensely on the reduction of unemployment in Imo state by creating job opportunities for the young secondary school leavers and university graduates.




       Before the present administration came into the affairs of the state, unemployment  has acquired the notorious status of one of the problem which requires solution by the government.

The problem became compounded in the second half of the 1970s when the government of the day enlarged the presence of unemployment in the society by employment on massive retrenchment exercise (NDE 1992).

       That was why the former president of Nigerian, General Ibrahim Badamosi Babaginda’s administration is his administration transition programme tries to address this issue in the concept of mass mobilization for economic recovery self reliance and social justice (MAMSER).

       For the fact that the federal government beefed up the federal ministry of labour or international labour organization (ILO) to include among other. He national directorate of employment shows that they have prepared themselves to tackle the  unemployment issue.

The directorates has their primary functions as creating job for the jobless who are willing to do the job. The main concern here is to explore the efforts of Imo state government in fighting this unemployment issues in our country through the national directorate of employment.

       The national directorate of employment (NDE) philosophy is the creation of self employment with emphasis one self reliance and entrepreneurship under their four core programme which were initiate to extricate our youths from the unemployment queue and to reoriented the paid employment to self employment.

Lately, the NDE operation underwent fundamental redirection which is meant to enable shake off, the opportunities and some other unserious applicants, for instance a strategic review it training programme shows that most of the trainces were more interested in the N50 monthly stippened to them than in acquiring useful skills.

Hence, the NDE abolish this stippened  payment in 1991. The saving accruing thereby are now invested in training programmes and also to provide take off support for dutiful trainces at the end of the training period. In certain urban areas of Imo state the educated youths tends to congregate, the rate unemployment was especially high, running to over 40% also in the rural areas of Imo state, the unemployment rate was not less because the youths and gradates were the highest hit in this. With growing joblessness among the youth there was also a growing dependency rate to the side of the parents.

The ex-president Babangida in his 1991 budget speech directed the directors body to change with the establishment and to concentrated its efforts, on the reactivation of public works, promotion of direct labour and self employment organization  of artisan into cooperative societies and encouragement and of culture of maintenance and report.

For board of directorate to ensure proper implementation of the directives, they articulated four practical programmes nationwide, each operation as a separate department from the other and these are: –

1.  National youth employment and vacation skills development programme.

2.  Small scale industries and graduate employment programmes.

3.  Agricultural sector employment programmes.

4.  Special public work programmes (NDF)

These programmes are backed by this necessary administrative monitoring and support personnel, thus enabling optimum use resources are prompt response to the requirement of the public we serve.

NDE was designed to utilize valuable mane power resources in carrying out the necessary public work using labour intensive technological techniques and to enable the participation obtained short term employment while acquiring new skills and trade experience. Farmer should develop their resources in such a way that it would become possible for the well being of the immediate family in particular and nation in general.

The fact here is that while the farmers is striving to improve the harvest from his farms, the government through agencies provides their facilities that would enable the farmers process and market his products. While one is thinking of good access road, improved transportation system electricity, and all such infrastructure that would maximize the uses of the harvested products, a self reliance engineer would find pride into the field to practice the theories and formulate what he had acquired in the comfort of air conditioned farming.

Unemployment could take many forms such as frictional, structural, seasonal and cyclical, because of this different levels of unemployment, an economy particularly of market economy cannot be without some level of unemployment for instance fictional unemployment result where people change jobs though it transient, within this period the person is switching job he could be classified as unemployed.

Structural unemployment occurs when people loose their jobs because of structural changes in the economy.

On the other hand seasonal unemployment occurs due to seasonal variation in weather, this is mainly the feature of agranance economy where activities are very much affected by seasons while cyclical unemployment result from fluctuation in economic activities (business cycle) it rises during a boom.

The effect of unemployment could be macro or micro. Its macro effect include producing on a very low production possibilities curve, balance of payment disequilibrium (deficit) as well as include financial hardship to the families involved, psychological effect (depression) on the individuals and increase in crime rates such as stealing, association and prostitution.


There are great number of unemployed youths in the state both school leavers and university graduates roaming about the streets in search of jobs. Some people has claimed that the directorates has been able to reduce the rate of unemployment among graduate and school leavers to 60% from original 80% before the conception of NDE 1986. In spite of the promises made by the NDE in 1987 to create technical jobs for Nigerian, which is twenty five years now the rates of those who have been waiting for the NDE has increased.


Based on the above, this study is designed to find out the extent the national directorate of employment have gone in dealing with unemployment problems in Imo state since its inception.

Moreover, it is designed to reveal out some problems confronting and militating against its operation in Imo state and probably find possible solution to the problem.


The following questions are those to be answer in the study: –

1.  Has the NDE solves the problem (unemployment) in Imo state?

2.  Do you think the NDE programme is securing applicants in setting up small business enterprise in Imo state?

3.  Do you feel that mass retrenchment every day exercise by the government would increase the problem of unemployment in Nigeria?

4.  Do you think that the NDE is up and doing in using manpower resources available in Nigeria for the up keep of our society.

5.  Do you think that Imo state in general has benefited from the NDE programme?


This project is aimed at offering possible solutions to the problem of unemployment and the problems facing national directorate of employment in Imo State.


The study is delimited to imo state in general and also to participants under apprenticeship skill and beneficiaries of its loan programmes in particular.


The major constraints while carrying our this research project was finance since it requires introduction of people and preparing questionnaires of which some people generally find it difficult to answer to the questions as they though it is perhaps introducing into their personal affairs and  knowing more of their personal view on certain issues.


For the purpose of the study, the following term/concept are used:-

i.            NDE: national directorate of employment, they are charged with the responsibilities among the citizens through its different programmes.

ii.           ILO: International labour organization, they body is in charge of workers affaires world wide.

iii.         MAMSER: Mass mobilization for economic recovery with social welfare of the people of the state in particular and society in general.

iv.         EMPLOYMENT: This is a situation in which job seekers have work to do.

v.          UNEMPLOYMENT: A situation which arises when those who are willing and capable to work do not have any job to do.

vi.         RETRENCHMENT: A general phenomena whereby people loose their jobs everyday in the society.

vii.       APPLICANTS: A person or groups of people who make a formal request for a job.

viii.     JOB: This is  work for which one receives regular payment.

This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research

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