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Management is simply defined as a process of getting things accomplished with and through people by directing the efforts of individuals towards common goals or objectives, and directing is another word for motivating, influencing, or leading. This means that managers or leaders must understand employee motivation and develop approaches, which will motivate employees to perform their work to the fullest of their capability. Initially, the term “motivation” started to receive attention in the beginning of the 20th century, when rationalistic views of human behaviour raised more questions rather than explanations about man’s actions. The rationalist had viewed people as free moral beings who choose either the goods or bad among  courses of action, with each person’s choice depending upon his intelligences and education. They assumed that if the good choice were known, it would be automatically selected and acted upon. It is unlikely to find one who would skill hold this view of people. The complexity of human behaivour certainly does not lend itself very easily to such neat “reasonable” explanations. Motivation in the current usage is, however, one of the most complex aspects in the management process that came to the fore in the early 1950s under the ages of the behavioural science (comprising anthropology psychology, and sociology) school of management. the school shifted emphasis more and more the nature of the work itself and the degree to which it could fulfill man’s needs to use his skills and abilities of the three behavioral sciences, psychology has probably played the biggest role in influencing management thought and practice and in showing that people have a great variety of needs, which they attempt to satisfy at work. People have attitudes, values, and sentiments, all   of which significantly influence their behaivour on the job. The feelings that people have toward their supervisors, their job environment, their personal problems and numerous other factors are often difficult to ascertain yet they have a tremendous impact upon employee, motivation is a very perplexing one, in that it is not at all easy for a person to know for certain what actually motivates another person or causes him to behave the way he does. Furthermore, the individual may not even understand what really makes him tick. An aspect of this complex and perpetexing nature of motivation is that what motivated on person may not necessarily motivate another person by the same degree even within the same degree even within the same time period and environment. And what motivated a person in the past may not necessarily motivate another person by the same degree even within the same time period and environment, and what motivated a person in the past may not necessary motivate him later. The very uniqueness of the human individual, with many complex influences that interact in determining what he is and becomes, make  it rather difficult to measure motivational level  in people. What the person considers an important reward, another person might consider useless. For example a glass of cold juice would probably be a lot more “motivating” to a person who has just spent two houses or more in traffic jam in the hot sun, than it would  be to some who has just drank three cold bottles of beer. And even holding out a reward that is important to someone is certainly no guarantee that it will motivate him. the reason is that the reward itself will not motivate him unless he facts that effort on his part will probably lead to his obtaining that reward. people differ greatly in how the sizes up their chances for success on different jobs. So one  can see that a task which one person might feel would lead to rewards, might be views by another as impossible.

What is motivation? A man or woman is motivated when he or she wants to do something. A motive is not quite there same as an incentive. Whereas a person may be inspired or made enthusiastic by an incentives, his  or her main motive for wanting to do something may be fear or punishment. Motivation covers all the reasons which underline the way in which a person acts.


The Nigeria federation ministry of labour and productivity is the Nigerian federal ministry concerned with relations between workers and employers. It is jeaded by the minister of  labour and productivity assisted by a permanent secretary who is career civil servant. The current minister is senator Joel Danlami Ikenya. Hasssan Muhammad Lawal was appointed minister of labour in 2003 and was reappointed by President Umaru Yar’ Adua in July 2007. He was move into the ministry of works and housing and replace by Adetokimbo kayoed in December 2008. Kayode had previously been minister for tourism, culture and national orientation. Chief Emeka Wogu was than appointed minister of labour and productivity in 2010. The permanent secretary in December 2009 was Dr. Harunna Usman SANUSI. The Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity has been in existence (with different name) since 1939, with the central purpose of ensuring cordial relation between workers and employees in the public and private sectors. The body was created after start of World War II to co-ordinate resources for war efforts, with first one and then two labour inspectors attached to the governor’s officer with growing worker agitation over cost of living allowance, the department of labour was established on first October 1942. it was headed by a commissioner and two labour officers and was charged with dealing with labour. Movement issues, ensuring the orderly development of industrial relations and enforcing protection legislations. the organization grew as the war progressed, with offices opened in the industrial, centered of Enugu, Kaduna and Lagos. Labour a ministry of labour was created in addition to the department of labour and the two were merged on first April 1958. After independence in 1960, the ministry has grown steadily, renamed the federal ministry of employment labour and productivity in 1979 and the Ministry of Labour in January 2007. The outwards facing division the Ministry of Labour are, trade union services and industrial relations employment and wage and inspectorate. The trade union services decision formulate policies on trade union organizations and manage dispute and complaints. it also assists in workers, education, and keeps records on trade union and their activities internally oriented departments and human resources finance and suppliers, policy analysis research and statistics. The ministry is responsible for several parastatal (government owned agencies) Michael Imoudu Nation Institutes for Labour Studies (MINILS) Nigerian Social Insurance Trust Found (NSITF) National Productivity Centre (NPC) National Industrial Court and Industrial Arbitration Panel (IAP).

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