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The study investigate student knowledge a Climate Change and Environmental Preservation in Surulere and Lagos Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State.

The research work sought to investigate students understanding of environmental concepts and climatic change, if gender difference exists in student knowledge of climatic change as well as if type of school (Public and Private) attended and school location (Urban or rural) has any relationship on student knowledge of climatic change and environmental issues.

This study was carried out in Eight public senior secondary schools in Surulere and Lagos mainland local government area of Lagos State.

Data was collected by administration of students questionnaire comprising questions on climatic change and environmental issues. Data analysis was performed and the following finding were made;

i.             Student have poor knowledge on climatic change and environmental preservation as students have learning difficulties in these concepts.

ii.          Gender differences exist in student knowledge on climate change and environmental preservation.

iii.        There is a high relationship between type of school attended (Rural or Urban) and school location (Rural or Urban) on students knowledge on climate change and environmental preservation.

Based on this findings some recommendation were made’

·        Government should provide a valuable service to the community, both by promoting environmental education and awareness.

·        Science Teachers should be trained with a clear goal and understanding of the new and effective techniques of climate change and environmental issues.

It can be conducted from this study that student poor knowledge on climate change and environmental issues is as a result of learning difficulties faced by students and science related subjects such as geography and chemistry that are made optional to senior secondary school students.  





Climate refers to the average weather condition over more than thirty years. The climate of an region depends on many factors including the amount of sunlight it receive, its height above sea level, the shape of land and how close it is to ocean.

Global climate of the description of the climate of the planet as while, with all the regional difference average. Overall global climate depends on the energy trapped in the system. This amount are different for different climate. Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution weather over periods of time that range form decades to millions of years.

In recent usage, especially in the context of environmental policy, climate change usually refers to changes in modern climate. It may be qualified as anthropogenic climate change more generally known as “global warning”. Over hundred years ago, people world wide began burning more coal and oil for homes factors and transpiration burning these fossil full releases carbondioxide and other greenhouse effects gases into the atmosphere to warm more quickly than in the past.

Moreso, process as variation in earth orbits, mountain-building and continental draft, and changes in greenhouse gases condensations causes changes in climate.

The sun is the predominant sources for energy input to the earth. Both long and short term variation in solar intensity are known to affect global climate three is four billions years ago the sun emitted only 70% as much power as it does toady. If the atmosphere composition had been the same as today, liquid water should not have existed on earth.

Slight variations in earth leads to changes in the seasonal distribution of sunlight reaching the Earth’s surface and how it is distributed across the globe. There is very little change to the area averaged annually averaged sunshine, but there can be strong changes in the geographical and seasonal distribution.

The three processes types of orbital variations are variations in Earth’s eccentricity changes in the tilt angle of Earth’s axis of rotation and procession of Earth axis.

Volcanism is a process of conveying materials from the crust and mantle of the Earth, to its surface, volcanic eruptions, geysers, and hit springs are example of volcanics processes which releases gases and/or particulates into the atmosphere.

Anthropogenic factors are human activities that changes the environment. In some cases the claim of causality of human influence on the climate is direct and an ambiguous while in other instances it is less clear of most concern in these anthropogenic factors, is the increase in C02 levels due to emissions from fossil fuels combustion followed by aerosols and cement manufacture, other factors including land use, ozone depletion, animal agriculture and deforestation are also of concern in the rides they play both separately and in conjunction with other factors in affecting climate change, microclimate and measures of climate change.

Climate change in the recent past may be detected by corresponding changes in settlement and agricultural pattern. Climate change of various civilization.

During 20th century sea level rose about 15cms due to melting glacier ice and expansion of warmer sea water models predict that sea level may rise as much as 59cm turning the 21st century. Threading coaster community, wet land and coral reefs. However rainfall causes flooding in many regions normal temperature has lead to more intense rainfall in some areas.

Extreme drought is increasing, higher temperature caused by a high rate of evaporation and more drought in some area of the world. As temperature warms species may either move to cover habitat or dying, thus the ecosystem is changing, species that are particular vulnerable including endangered species, coral reefs and polar animals.

Warmer temperature affects human health these have been more death due to heat waves and more allergy attacks as the season grows longer. Sea water becoming more acidie due to C02 dissolving in the oceans . more so, climate change affect agricultural ecosystem in providing sufficient food for the world people as the population exceed six billon and as land, H20 and ecosystem resources are degraded through over use.

Agriculture and water resources are linked with climate if the build up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere continual without limit examples of plants threatened by climate change include blue bells, quever trees. The threat of extinction to species who are unable to adapt or have limited habitats increase due to climatic changes, also changes in animal pole ward and elevational shifts associated with regional warning.

Environmental preservation on the other hand is the setting of natural resources to prevent damaged caused by contract with human or by certain human activities such as logging, hunting, fishing, to replace them with human activities such as tourisms and recreation.

In conclusion, it is important to note that human activities are response for climate changes.


The study of climate change and environmental related issues as been of much global concern in recent years, this could be easily attributed to the ezone layer depletion and this has and still has economic, social and political effect on the world over in the light of this there has been a ice of public awareness program but the basic engorge of the work is the knowledge of this subject matter among student in secondary school in Lagos State.


The main purpose of the research is

1.   To investigate students understanding of environmental concepts and climate change.

2.   To find our is there are gender differences in students knowledge of climate change.

3.   To find out is type of school (public and private) attended has any relationship with student knowledge of climate change.

4.   To find out if the school location (urban or rural) has any relationship with students knowledge of climate change.


Biology is a core subject. Studying biology enables man to understand himself and his environment. The knowledge of climate change and environmental pressurization is applicable to other disciplines such as medicine, agriculture, historical geographical and many more.

1.   The result of this work will invariably spur school authorities and teachers to improve on the use of instructional materials and various techniques of teaching hence bring about effective learning in students.

2.   The students will also learn better on the application of climate change and environmental preservation of their communiter to their day to day activities and its application in solve social and environmental problems.

3.   Communities will benefits the most because the students are a part of the community, the more competent and skill feel students the better communities.

4.   It will create the need for educational agendas such as curriculum planners, curriculum innovators and curriculum designers to plan effectively and give adequate coverage to environmental and climate change issues at secondary school level.


1.   What are students general knowledge on concepts of climate change and environmental preservation?

2.   Do gender differences exist in students knowledge of climate change?

3.   Do types of school attended has any relationship with student knowledge of climate change and environmental preservation?

4.   Does school location have any relationship with student knowledge of climates change and environmental preservations?


This study will cover some selected senior secondary schools in Lagos State only. The variables to be studied are:

a.   Type of school i.e public/private

b.   School location i.e rural/urban                                                                  

c.    Sex/gender i.e male/female



Rural areas are the very undeveloped areas in the state, it could either be located within the urban setting or out skirt of  the urban settings. Rural in the sense of application in this study hinges mainly on the underdevelopment status of the areas.


This is an area of continuous urban development. Urban areas may be cites, town or combinations. Urban in the sense of application in their study hinges mainly on the well developed status of the area.


This is define as a set of characteristics that are seen to distinguish between male and female gender has several contiversial definition but here refers to am individual inner sex or psychological sense of being a male or female irrespective of ones outer sex identity as determined by one’s sexual organs. There are two man gender masculine (male) feminine (female).

Climate change

This is a change in the average weather condition or change in the distribution of weather events with respect to an average e.g greater or fewer extreme weather event.

Environmental Preservation

This is define as the setting aside of natural resources to prevent damage caused by contact with humans or by human activities such are logging. Miming, hunting e.t only to replace them with new human activities such as tourism and recreation. 

This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research

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