EFFECTS OF INSTRUCTIONAL TEACHING AIDS ON LEARNING ATTITUDES OF ADULT …
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Zimbabwe has an adult literacy rate of approximately 89% which is among the highest in Africa (EFA Global Monitoring Report, 2007). However, this has been declining considering it was once 92% in the early 90‟s. This makes Zimbabweans insightful when it comes to issues concerning education. The recent years has many adults pursuing further education to improve different productive skills and credentials that are needed in the shrinking job market. In an attempt to acquire these skills many adults attend evening classes. Some want to acquire basic education, for example, General Certificate Education Ordinary level. The General Certificate Education Ordinary Level has the grading A, B, C, D, E, with C being the lowest pass and A being the highest pass. The Zimbabwean requirements for a full certificate is five ‟O‟ Levels, which include English Language. The recent years have seen a pass in Mathematics also made compulsory. This has led to many adults who do not have a full certificate going back to school. In order to cater for these needs the Ministry of Education Sports and Culture in Zimbabwe has set a programme in public schools where „O‟ Level is being taught after normal working hours. These students are called private candidates. It has been observed that the pass rate of private candidates is low compared to those attending conventional school. Their results show that some candidates register but do not write the examination.
Lemmer and Dekker (1993) clearly state that no factor is more important for positive school outcomes than the children‟s perception of the teacher‟s attitude toward them and expectations. They claim that when students believe that their teachers care about them, see them as competent, respect their views and desire their success, they tend to work toward fulfilling those high expectations. Teachers‟ expectations of pupils‟ performance and abilities can operate as a self-fulfilling prophecy within a classroom (Lemmer and Dekker, 1993). There are tendencies for the performance of the pupils to conform to the expectations declared by the teacher. According to Shalveson and Marsh (1986), students‟ attitude towards their ability to influence their academic outcome does affect their performance. Schneider et al. (2012) argues that students‟ feelings, attitudes, and perceptions they hold about their academic ability that is, academic self-concept, does affect their performance. When students have low academic self-concept they shift to self-handicapping. This method shifts blame away from the individual, and allows them to have excuses for failure. Students are more likely to achieve high marks when they believe in their own capacities and do not feel anxious about the learning process, (Schneider et al., 2012). Shalveson and Marsh (1986) also states that Self-efficacy in mathematics affects students‟ willingness to take on challenging tasks and the amount of effort and persistence. Bandura (1994) cites that students were asked to what extent they believe in their own ability to handle learning situations in mathematics effectively, overcoming difficulties tackling them. Results showed that self-efficacy and self-concept did affect performance and was also a key impact on motivation.
Adult literacy center is a place where adults are taught how to read and write. The goal of the Adult Literacy Center (ALC) is to improve literacy in adults, resulting in enhanced self-esteem, daily living, and life-long learning. Utilizing volunteers and new technologies, the ALC improves the quality of adults’ lives by helping them learn to read, write and comprehend. Adult literacy center was created to help uneducated people in Ado Odo Ota local government area, Ogun state.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Adults are faced with various difficulties in their learning. Age has a lot to do with educational performance, it is easy for young people to understand and assimilate fast than adults. Therefore, there is need to develop instructional teaching aids for easy teaching of Adult learners in adult literacy centers in Ado Odo Ota local government area, Ogun state. This is expected to improve positive learning attitude among students, and performance of adult learners in Ado odo ota local government area, Ogun state.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to research the effect of the use of instructional teaching aids on learning attitudes of adult learners in adult literacy centers, Ado Odo Ota local government area, Ogun state.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the meaning of adult learning?
2. What is the meaning of learning attitude?
3. What is the attitudes of adult learners towards learning in Adult literacy centers?
4. How can adult learning be improved?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.
This study will affect teachers of adult learners in adult literacy centers, to identify the effects of instructional teaching aids on learning and performance of their students. This study will also improve the learning attitudes of adult learners positively in adult literacy centers, Ado Odo Ota local government area, Ogun state.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study focus on the effect of the use of instructional teaching aids on the performance of adult learners in adult literacy centers, Ado Odo Ota local government area, Ogun state.
Alhassan A.M. (2012). Factors affecting adult learning and their persistence. A theoretical approach (accessed 7th October, 2013). European journal of business and social science: 1(6): 150-168.
Bandura A. (1992). Self efficacy in Ramachaudran(Ed). Encyclopedia of human behaviour: New York: Academics press, 4(1): 71-81.
EFA Global monitoring Report (2007). Education for all by 2015- will make it? Oxford: Oxford University.
Lemmer E. and Dekker E. (1993). Critical issues in modern education. Durban: Butterworth.
Precious Ndlovu and Wisdom Moyo (2013). Factors affecting performance of adults in adult and continuing education in Nkulumane – Emganwini.
Schneider F.N., Gruman J.A. and Courts L.M. (2012). Applied Social psychology understanding and addressing social and practical problems. Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage publications, Inc.
Shalveson R.J. and Marsh H.W. (1986). On the structure of self- concept in Schwarzer (ed). Anxiety and Cognitions. Hillside N.J : Erlbaum.