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A cross-sectional study was conducted for fifteen (15) months (May, 2012 to July, 2013) to assess the efficacy of Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) in diagnosis followed by treatment of childhood malaria with Artemisinin -Based Combination Therapy (ACT) at community level in Benue State. A total of 840 symptomatic children aged two months to thirteen years were presented for diagnosis with RDT kits by care givers at the designated clinics and at community levels. The 656 RDT positive children recorded in this study were treated with Artesunate-Amodiaquine. Microscopic slides of the blood of all the children presented for RDT were equally prepared and examined. Another 333 symptomatic children aged 2 months to thirteen years served as control in one clinic. All positive cases were reviewed, seven days after drug administration. Three hundred and nine (309) RDT positive children were followed-up for adherence to treatment regime. Intradermal smear and peripheral blood films were prepared for 59 children previously confirmed to be positive and were examined after treatment. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to determine the perception of malaria and treatment preference of community. An overall malaria community microscopic confirmatory prevalence of 87.7% was recorded for the children. RDT/community based study recorded a cure rate of 88.2% with a prevalence reduction from 78.1% to 11.8%

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