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Curriculum implementation entails putting into practice the officially prescribed courses of study, syllabuses and subjects. The process involves helping the learner to acquire knowledge or experience. It is vital to note that curriculum implementation cannot take place as the learner acquires the planned or intended experiences, knowledge, skills, ideas and attitudes that are aimed at enabling the same learner to function effectively in a society. Curriculum is the way content is designed and developed. The process includes the structure, organization, and balance of the materials. Curriculum implementation therefore refers to how the planned or officially designed course of study is translated by the teacher into syllabuses, schemes of work and lessons to be delivered to learners. It was appropriately accused of being jargon-ridden and inaccessible in its discourse. Its procedures for designing learning programmes were complex and sophisticated. This was partly due to poorly and over-hasty introduction of the new curriculum into schools, without teachers being sufficiently prepared for outcomes-based pedagogy, including continuous assessment. Teachers went through in-service training to equip them but even this was inadequate. Because of the lack of capacity in the provinces in most schools to implement major changes as proposed, the government scaled down its plans to implement the new curriculum to Grade 1 from the outset. Because of these flaws and inadequacies, a review committee was established to look at possibilities of refining Curriculum 2005 and this led to 4 the introduction of the National Curriculum Statement (NCS), which was a refined version of outcomes-based education (Christie 1999:279). The implementation of the new curriculum did not merely involve the direct and straightforward application of plans. It was a dynamic organizational process that was shaped over time by interactions between projects, goals and methods and the institutional setting (Gultig et al 2002:183). However, my observation as an educator is that teachers are still using the traditional method of teaching, where a teacher is regarded as the only source of information and the learners as the vessels that need to be filled with knowledge or learning material. Teachers must be willing to apply the new approach and must be able to articulate their ideas so as to make a meaningful contribution to the new curriculum implementation. Morris (2002:15) indicates that for educators to be self-motivated and committed to their objectives, the mutual relationship between teachers should be promoted, all stakeholders should be involved in planning the curriculum, and there should be opportunities for growth and more innovative and effective teaching methods. What becomes clear is the need for teacher education and for educators to grasp the challenges and opportunities to assert their power over shaping the curriculum process that will produce competent, confident teachers

Since the inception of western type of education in Nigeria, several attempts have been made to formulate policies in order to improve education practice. The problem facing our different level of educational system is not the formulation of policy but the implementation. Even though large sums of money are spent on implementing new curriculum, several of these efforts have failed. According to Alade (2011), the main reason for the failure is the lack of understanding of the culture of the school by both experts outside the school system and educators in the system. Successful implementation of curriculum requires understanding the power relationships, the traditions, the roles and responsibilities of individuals in the school system. The word implementation connotes operationalization of a well-articulated and well intentioned ideas packed as theory. Hence to implement is to put to action packed ideas or theories into reality. Mezieobi (1993), conceptualized the term implementation simply as a process of putting an agreed plan, decision, proposal, idea or policy into effect. It is the bedrock of any plan success or failure. It is the moving force of any plan without which a plan is only good wish or intention. On the other hand, the word curriculum in a formal setting can be seen as the planned learning experiences offered to the learner in school. Esu, Enukoha and Umoren (2004) conceived curriculum as all learning experiences a child has under the guidance of a teacher. Garba (2004) viewed curriculum implementation as the process of putting the curriculum into work for the achievement of the goals for which the curriculum is designed. Okebukola (2004) described curriculum implementation as the translation of the objectives of the curriculum from paper to practice. In a nutshell, Ivowi (2004) sees curriculum implementation as the translation of “theory into practice”, or “proposal into action”. In a similar vein, Afangideh (2009), sees the concept of curriculum implementation as the actual engagement of learners with planned learning opportunities. It is the actual carrying-out of societal culture and/or government policies spelt out in the curriculum.

. Curriculum experts have argued that curriculum making either at the level of development, design, implementation or reformation needs the inputs of critical stakeholders if it is to be relevant, meaningful and adequate to meet the needs of the people for whom it has been put together. That is, curriculum is being construed as learning activities that make up a particular system of education. Ackerman (2008) in his examination of cognitive development theory explained in details how the curriculum is sequenced in schools. In Nigeria for instance, secondary school curriculum is designed to encourage all students to achieve their spiritual, intellectual and social potential as well as to understand the relevance of learning in their daily lives. It is important to note that, it is one thing to develop/design curriculum, it is another thing to implement it effectively. Objectives of any level of education cannot be achieved if the planned program for such level of education is not well implemented. Onyeachu (2008) observed that no matter how well a curriculum of any subject is planned, designed and documented, implementation is important.


Due to challenges experienced by educators such as inadequate resources, financial constraints and lack of training, curriculum implementation has proved problematic to the culture of teaching and learning in various South African schools. If left unaddressed, these matters will have far-reaching consequences not only for our education system but also for the type of skilled learners that will be produced and for the economic growth of the country. Currently, some of the educators in our schools are foreigners who were not trained or oriented in terms of the NCS. In addition, some of the local educators who are currently employed as temporary teachers were not oriented on the implementation of the NCS.Any curriculum, however beautifully planed it may be, will be of no relevance if it is not implemented. It is therefore important that curriculum be duly implemented. An implementation process will begin with a critical consideration of all means of making it work. Mkpa (2005) confirms that the implemented curriculum determines the extent to which educational objectives are achieved. Curriculum implementation is therefore a serious exercise whose success lies squarely on the shoulders of the classroom teacher (Afangideh, 2009). Therefore, the Teacher education curriculum in Nigeria has been far from realization because of some of the implementation challenges it is faced with, however it is the interest of the researcher to systematically study the challenges faced while implementing the Nigeria curriculum.


The main objective of this study is to investigate the challenges faced during curriculum implementation in Nigeria. So as to conclude with a valid result the specific objectives of the study is:

1.     To investigate the challenges faced while formulating the curriculum

2.     To find out the problems faced by stakeholders involve in implementing the curriculum

3.     To proffer solution the problem of curriculum implementation in Nigeria


The following research questions will guide the researcher to arrive at a valid result and also to achieve the stated objectives above:

1.     What are the problems encountered while formulating the Nigeria curriculum?

2.     What are the problems faced by the stakeholders involved in curriculum implementation in Nigeria?

3.     What are the measures that can be taken to solve the problem of curriculum implantation in Nigeria?


The study will expose the teachers, school managements, the government and all stakeholders involve in policy making in Nigeria to the challenges that hinder the proper implementation of curriculum in Nigeria, also this research will enlighten both the stakeholders and non-stakeholders in the economy on what curriculum implantation is and what can be done for an effective curriculum implementation I Nigeria. Finally this study will serve as a reference to other researcher who will embark on the same research in the nearest future.


Since this research is based on curriculum implementation, the researcher choose samples from schools in Ndokwa East local government area in Delta state.


Due to limited time and insufficient fund to finance the project the research is limited to one local government area in Delta state


Investigation: the action of investigating something or someone; formal or systematic examination or research

Challenges: difficulty in a job or undertaking that is stimulating to one engaged in it.

Curriculum: the subjects comprising a course of study in a school or college.

Implementation: the process of putting a decision or plan into effect; execution

This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research

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