EXAMINATION OF RISK BEHAVIOR FROM HARD DRUGS (METHAMPHETAMINE “MKPURUMMIRI”) AMONG THE YOUTHS. A CASE STUDY OF UMUNNEOCHI LGA

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ABSTRACT

This study was carried out on the examination of risk behavior from hard drugs (methamphetamine “mkpurummiri”) among the youths. using Umunneochi LGA as a case study. To achieve this, thee significant research objectives were formulated. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprises of syouths in Umunneochi LGA, Abia State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 112 respondents while 109 were received and 100 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. The result of the findings reveals that the prevalence of methamphetamine consumption among youths in Nigeria is high. The findings also revealed that the consequences associated with addiction to methamphetamine consumption among youths in Nigeria include; suicide, personality disorders, infectious, and dental, diseases, epilepsy, depression, and changes in the eating pattern. In regard to the findings, the study recommends that Government should strictly enforce its existing laws against drug abuse through its regulatory agencies; drug testing in probation agencies should be used with sufficient frequency and randomness to identify and deter continued substance abuse; and program planning, development, and implementation should include all potentially affected persons, including agency administrators, line personnel, key juvenile justice stakeholders (e.g., judges, court administrators, prosecuting and defense attorneys), and important community representatives (e.g., substance abuse, mental health, and medical treatment providers)..

Keywords: Drug, Abuse, methamphetamine .

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Of The Study

Substances misuse among youths has been investigated for a long time, with the aim of specifically identifying and studying interventions that will minimize drug use in this group(1). Information on the relationship between risk behavior and use of substances in the societal environments is necessary for the development of effective preventive programs and to promote environment that are free of drugs and the violence generated by them. The maturing of this idea comes up with the growing recognition on the researchers’ part of the high prevalence of the health problems and attendent risks to society associated with drug use by adolescents and young adults. More precisely, drug use is one of the most controversial issues in the society [1, 2] , and dependence on it can be recognized as an illness, and a sociopolitical and health problems worldwide [3] . The drug consumption pattern has recently changed in Iran and in west Africa precisely Nigeria. As a result, the young generation is willing to consume new drugs such as methamphetamine, crack, and heroin [4, 5] . Methamphetamine is a stimulant drug [6] , which has become popular in Nigeria with the name of crystal. It is one of the most frequently abused substance, and its prevalence in Nigeria is over 5.2% of consumers [7] . Thus, the underreporting of drug use is a real problem [8-10] . Furthermore, the growth of methamphetamine consumption in the world [11] as well as in Nigeria has become an important problem for the health sector [12-14] at the individual and social levels [15, 16] . Ease of production, uncommon compounds, and different degrees of purity, low cost and high income, easy availability, simple and little needed equipment, the possibility of mass production, and difficulty in identifying laboratories make its trade very lucrative [17] . However, it can cause a lot of dangers, such as explosion, burns, lung burns and even cancer, for manufacturers and those who are near the places of production and exposed to waste[18-20] .

The regular methamphetamine use can lead to long-term harmful effects [21] . Ahmad Hatim (2011) conducted a study on methamphetamine dependence in Malaysia, and the results showed that the prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity among these people was 54.4%, the prevalence of suicide was 12.1%, and 47.9% of these people had high levels of methamphetamine-induced psychosis [15] . Similarly, Petit et al. (2012), in their study, found that there was a significant association between methamphetamine addiction and personality disorders, and cardiovascular, pulmonary, infectious, and dental diseases [11] . Likewise, Sommers et al. also conducted a study titled “Methamphetamine use among young adults: health and social consequences” and found that regular methamphetamine use was associated with the consequences of weight loss, seizures, and epilepsy. Notably, the prevalence of the consumption of this drug has also risen public concerns in Nigeria. Previous studies conducted on this subject matter are limited to other countries. Thus this study will be focus on the behavioural risk associated with Methamphetamine consumption among Nigerian youths.

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

The extent to which drug trafficking in Nigeria among the youths who are considered to the leaders of the nearest future has risen the concerns of parents and social organizations. Their fears is attributed to the implications and consequences associated with the constant consumption of such deadly drugs. According to Jonesh(2011), young people who persistently abuse substances often experience an array of problems, including academic difficulties, health-related problems (including mental health), poor peer relationships, and involvement with the juvenile justice system. In Nigeria, the growth of methamphetamine consumption has become an important problem for the health sector [12-14] . At the individual and social levels, there are consequences for family members, the community, and the entire society. Specifically, many methamphetamine abusers experienced severe psychological symptoms or diseases such as depression, hallucinations, paranoia, and violence [22] . Also, in a systematic review performed by Marshall and Warb, there was a strong association between methamphetamine use and increased depression, psychosis, and suicide mortality risk, but no association was found between methamphetamine use and infectious and dental diseases [23, 24] .

The abuse of methamphetamine creates a sense of euphoria and lightness in a person, which is highly addictive. Methamphetamine rapidly enters the brain after taking and causes a sudden secretion of neurotransmitters including, norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin. The most important consequences of the use of this substance include obsessive-compulsive disorder, fetishism, depression, antisocial behavior, violent behavior, movement disorders like Parkinson’s disease, low mental health, insomnia, and risky sexual behavior [34] .

1.3 Objective Of The Study

Generally, this study focus on the examination of risk behavior from hard drugs (methamphetamine “mkpurummiri”) among the youths. A case study of  Umunneochi LGA. Specifically, this aims at;

  1. Ascertain the prevalence of methamphetamine consumption among youths in Nigeria.
  2. Identify the consequences associated with addiction to methamphetamine consumption among youths in Nigeria.
  3. Determine the factors which influences methamphetamine consumption among youths in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Question

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What is the prevalence of methamphetamine consumption among youths in Nigeria?
  2. What are the consequences associated with addiction to methamphetamine consumption among youths in Nigeria?
  3. What are the factors which influences methamphetamine consumption among youths in Nigeria?

1.5 Significant Of The Study

The importance of this study is to provide resource materials for many that want to have deeper knowledge about the risk behavior from hard drugs (methamphetamine “mkpurummiri”) among the youths. This research will encourage organizations like NAFDAC, NDLEA, health organizations like WHO, SHE and government parastatals to establish drug rehabilitation centers to help victims of drug abuse and addiction. More so, the significance of this study is to outline the implications of  methamphetamine abuse amongst Nigerian youths.

1.6 Scope Of The Study

The study focuses on the examination of risk behavior from hard drugs (methamphetamine “mkpurummiri”) among the youths. The study will further ascertain the prevalence of methamphetamine consumption among youths in Nigeria, identify the consequences associated with addiction to methamphetamine consumption among youths in Nigeria, and determine the factors which influences methamphetamine consumption among youths in Nigeria.

1.7 Limitation Of The Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

1.8 Definition of Terms

Excessive Use of Drugs

This is when an individual takes in drug without following the current prescription of the doctor

Use of Hard Drugs

Hard drugs are capable of affecting the state of the body or mind by either depressing or stimulating the central nervures system or producing other biochemical harm to the society at large.

Stimulants

This are the kinds of drugs that stimulates the nervous system of an individual to behave extra-ordinary leading such individuals to misbehave. The health implication is that the individual is acting on the influence of a cultivating factors such as tobacco, cocaine e.t.c. common incidence that happen around us today is on the influence of those stimulants and if care is not taken could lead to mental disorder.

Depressants

These are sleeping inducing drugs they are used to calm anxious and restless subjects. They are barbiturales and non barbiturates that are capable of producing some degree of depression of the central nervous system (CNS) they are the most dangerous drugs.

Hallucinogens

These are substance that produces a state of altered perception and other alteration of mood such as illusion hallucination. Examples of these drugs are hysergic acid dethy lamine (LSD).

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