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Certificate                                                                                                                            i

Dedication                                                                                                                           ii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                              iii

Table of content                                                                                                                   v



1.1    Introduction                                                           1

1.2    Statement of the Research Problem                       3

1.3    Objective of the Study                                            5

1.4          Significance of the Study                                  6

1.5    Research Question                                                  7

1.6    Scope and Limitation of the Study                          9

1.7    Plan of the Study                                                     9

1.8    Definition of the Key Terms                                     11 



2.0          Historical of Nigeria Bottling Company PLC             14

2.1    Decision-Making in Management                                   18

2.2          Cost Volume Profit (Break-Event) Analysis Model     20

2.3    Limitation of the Model                                                   21

2.4    Decision under Certainty, Uncertainty and Rise              22

2.5    Role of decision models                                                  23



3.1    Method of Data Collection   25

3.2    Population and Sample Size      29

3.3    Sample and Sampling Technique      30

3.4    Method of Data Analysis                   31



4.1    Discussion of the Analysis                   33

4.2    Discussion of Finding                          37



5.1    Summary of Finding                            38

5.2    Conclusion                                           39

5.3    Recommendation                                40

Bibliography                                                 43

Appendix                                                      45

Questionnaire                                               46



1.1    INTRODUCTION     

The accounting system is major qualitative information acquired in almost every organization for and it, therefore, provides information for the three broad purposes namely as internal reporting to managers for use, in planning and control routine operation and non-routine operation, formulation or major plan and policies and lastly the external reporting to stockholders, government, debenture holder and other outside parties. Therefore the managers depend largely upon the quality and quantity of data received. Thus, information flows in the management information system too by influence the effectiveness of decision making.

According to Hornaren (2014), the question of what accounting system to buy must focus on how decisions and consequent benefits are going to be affected. One must also ask what decision will result from accounting data and what outcome will ensure from decision making. Accounting reports, which are financial models or company operations, model are useful because they provide conceptual representation or realities, enabling the decision-makers to anticipate and measure the effect of alternative actions.

Decision-making is choosing among alternatives it occurs as managers perform their planning and controlling function. A decision model is one, which affects the performance of management planning and control functions, but only to extent that management delegates when the model was constructed and implemented the functions. In every organization, the accountants are the quantitative expert, and to retain and improve his status, and also the accountant should be aware of how the mathematical models may improve planning and evaluating the quantitative sources of decision recommendation, as the accountant is usually a member of the top management team in every organization.

According to Thranf (2014) general stated that a model is defined as a representative of an actual object of a situation. A formal decision model measures the predicted effects of alternative action. However, it is pertinent to note that accounting to the report of the committees on management decision model may indicate a choice which is rejected by management because of more dominant legal, sociological, psychological, political and other considerations not included in the specific mode is only one input into a more complicated decision model, which include quantitative as well as quantitative dimension.



Budgeting is an important tool in the business organization some of these organizations have budgeting departments that are saddled with the responsibility of preparing budget statements for each unit, department and branch of the organization the department also monitors the execution of the budget estimates with the purpose of ensuring that the budget target is achieved in terms of revenue and that the expenditure does not exceed the estimates, this is the aspect of budgetary control. Not many problems are encountered during the budgeting process; major problems lie in the area of budgeting control, the following problem is usually encountered in the budgeting control.

  1. LACK OF FLEXIBILITY: Some budgets are prepared without adequate flexibility to allow for unexpected situations, which may arise during the budget period they are so fixed and tight that they become an end in themselves rather than a mean to an end, In short, rather than serving as a means of controlling operations, the budget control the manager.
  2. RESISTANCE TO CONTROL: Some managers regard budgetary control as unnecessarily restrictive and an indirect way of controlling their authority. Rather than seeing budget as a means of improving performance and achieving corporate objectives they regard budgeting as a witch-hunting exercise, they adopt a protective stance on their budget centre and resist any attempt to bring it into harmony with other centres.
  3. BEHAVIOUR ASPECT OF BUDGETING: The human aspect of budgeting cannot be overemphasized the success of any budget totally depends upon the goodwill and cooperation of the participants without this, the budget statement will become merely a paper exercise with no real impact on the operation of the organization.


The study is aimed at providing a general review of investment decision making processes in manufacturing companies this entails how the projects are initiated, analysed and by whom. Other objectives of the study include:

  1. To find out our cash flow associated with various investment proposals is being estimated.
  2. To examine the various investment appraisal techniques opened to the management of a company.
  3. To determine the effect of taxation, inflation, risk and uncertainty on investment appraisal.
  4. To ascertain whether there is an attributable critical justification for the use of various investments are achieved or are just a product of some imaginations.


This study will be most relevant to the management of the organization in determining the choice of investment project among various investment opportunities or alternatives and secondly for any decision-maker should at his disposal, the best qualitative and quantitative tool which are available, so that he may establish a frame of reference for the decision past literature on the research have been too general without going special consideration to the bottling company and in fact, have been too theoretical. The research is therefore intended for use by managers and accountants especially in the bottling industry in the implementation of decision-making tasks in a more efficient manner and also to serve as a pointer to further research on the topic.


In order to guide and direct the study, the following questions were used:

  1. Can budgeting planning, implementation and control be used as an effective tool for revenue generation in a manufacturing company?
  2. Can proper budgeting implementation and effective control be used to achieve a balanced budget in a business organization?
  3. Can effective budgetary planning and control be used to achieve the organizational objectives?
  4. What are the measures taken by the organization when there are variances?
  5. What are the procedures established by the management to ensure that copies of the finalized budget are communicated to all staff?
  6. Does budgetary control actually guarantee goods and a reliable budget and can it be used to detect budget variance?
  7. Can late implementation of a budget lead to wrong financial decisions and loss of revenue?


This research is intended to cover the various cost accounting models used as sources or tools for managerial decision making with participant reference to models that is particular and applicable to the Nigerian bottling company plc, Ilorin as well as its various branches all over the federation.

This research study would be limited due to the time and financial constraints of the Nigerian Bottling Company Plc Ilorin and is hoped that any findings of the research would be applicable to the other branches of the company and the bottling industry in general.


The structure of the research work is divided into five chapters. Chapter one (the introduction) contained general background to the study (literature review) of the study will shed light on the work of the different authors, researchers in related fields and review every journal and literature that is related and relevant to the research study. Chapter three (research methodology) of the study will show method of data collection how they are going to be analyzed and quantified using the chi-square method brief history of the case- study Nigerian bottling company will be discussed in this chapter. Chapter four (data analysis and presentation) will contain data presentation and analysis with particular reference to the case study Nigerian Bottling Company this chapter will cover the application of every information discussed in chapters two and three on the case study (NBC) of the research work. Chapter five (summary of conclusion and recommendation) which is the last chapter is going to summarize the research work, inferences will be drawn on the research problem under study and based on the conclusions drawn, recommendations will be made to the case study (Nigerian Bottling Company) of the research problem on what appraisal techniques to use with reason or criteria for choosing such techniques.


This has been defined to suit the context of this writing in order to avoid certain misconceptions that may arise.

  1. Cost; is the amount of expenditure carried on or attributable to a specified thing or activity and at the simplest level. A cost is determined by two components (the quantity and the price)
  2. Cost unit; as defined by I.C.M.A, is a quantitative unit of product or service in relation to which costs is ascertained whenever costing is coursed out, the focus is to determine the cost resistance of the product or service.
  3. Cost Allocation; this is the changing of discrete and identification of the item of cost centre of cost unit. It is the allotment of the whole item of cost to the centre or cost unit that is responsible for its authorization.
  4. Cost Ascertainment; This the identification of the right or appropriate cost a factory is N70000, or the what is the cost to pay the nurses salary, it may be 25000 or the word cleaners may receive 15000 and doctors receive 35000.
  5. Cost Absorption; also refers to the cost that has been a cost centre by either allocation or apportionment and absorbed into cost unit.
  6. Cost Apportionment; This is the process of sharing commonly incurred expenses proportionately where two or as more cost centres are involved, based on the amount of benefit each cost centre derived from it.
  7. Cost Control; This is an act of making necessary adjustments after comparing the actual cost with a standard targeted cost. Where the actual exceeds the targeted cost a reduction in cost may become necessary.
  8. Costing Center; as defined in the terminology it is a location, person or times of equipment in respect of which cost unit for control purpose.
  9. Cost Code; According to I.C.M.A is s system of symbols designed to apply to a classified set of item to gives a brief accurate reference facilitating entry, collation and analysis. The symbol may be mainly a series of numbers or an alphabet or a mature of both.
  10. Fixed Cost; this is a cost that does not change with the change in the level of activity. It remains static over a period of time. Unaffected by variations in the level of activity and volume of product.
  11. Variable Cost; this is also changes in the level of change inactivity. Any increase or decrease in the volume of production results in a proportionate change in cost.

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