EVALUATION OF NIGERIAN HOME VIDEOS FOR PROMOTING NATIONAL UNITY AND DEVELOPMENT

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ABSTRACT

This study is designed to assess the impact of Nigerian home videos in propagating national unity and development using residents of selected areas in Ogun state as the case study. The Survey research methodology using questionnaire was adopted while one hundred and thirty three copies of questionnaire were administered to the selected respondents and one hundred retrieved back. From the questionnaire administered in the course of this investigation and the analysis of the data collected the study revealed that Nigerian home video has a significant impact on National unity in Nigeria and that there is a significant relationship between Nigerian home video and National development in Nigeria. In conclusion, some recommendations were made based on the findings.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1 1.BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The Nigerian home video has been used as an emerging art, a true and simple means of communication (Ekwauzi, 2013; Alawode, 2013). It is a phenomenon famous in the Nigerian film industry known as Nollywood, compared to the AIDS virus by Jean Rouch, a champion of indigenous art in Niger (The Economist, 2010).The Nigerian home video is effectively a film created and placed in the Optical Versatile Disk that can be screened in the comfort of the home of an individual or any audience’s comfortable place of choice.(which are in every cases with subtitled).Normally, they provide indigenous content and discuss topics important to Nigeria’s mass audience. The Nigerian home video document recreates socio-economic, political and cultural activities inside and across the Nigerian frontier through Nigerian storytelling strategies (African storylines) and western technologies. Movie costs vary from 100 Naira to 400 Naira, depending on the age the of films.The Nigerian film industry has grown from obscurity to become an important phenomenon which has attracted not only world acclamation but has brought scholars, reporters, reviewers, journalists, investors and different kinds of Nationalities to Nigeria. Some of the individuals come with their people to investigate, invest and observe the industry(Adenugba,2007). Indeed, popular opinion based on UNESCO report (2019), holds that the Nigerian film industry, which is dominated by home videos is currently rated second in production of films after Bollywood and over Hollywood.

Nigerian’s film industry remains the prominent film industry in Africa and beyond that is poised to championing the projection of the Nigerian cultural values through film and promoting our National unity and development. The development of Nigerian home video industry dates back to the colonial era Acharya and Johnson (2007)through the efforts of the European merchant, colonial administration and the church. The first full screening experience in Nigeria was at the Clover Memorial Hall in Lagos state on August 12, 1903 (Ekwauzi, 2013; Alawode, 2013). In terms of quantity, the Nigerian home video industry that began as a joke now ranks and competes with Hollywood and Bollywood (Fafiolu 2014); locally outselling international videos and today are still appreciated worldwide and in all it promotes our unity through cultural content (Akpabio 2007).

National unity can be seen as cooperation among a nation’s people, with minimum sectoral activities and near obedience to the country’s law and order. However, national unity doesn’t mean homogeneity. Rather, it encourages a’ culture of cultures’ that embraces plurality and expresses beliefs, perspectives and geographical relativity.

Firstly, national unity is an incremental pre-requisite for civil stability and national growth in the country in the form of ethnic and religious harmony. As a consequence, national unity and, consequently, social cohesion lead to nation-building, especially in a nation like Nigeria. One component of nation-building revolves around economic changes that would lead to high living conditions in highly simplistic terms; and if reduced poverty rate and wage inequality are channeled successfully, benefiting the population as a whole.

Nevertheless, while Nigeria and Africa as a whole are becoming increasingly aware of the potential impacts and role of home video film in the spread of national unity and growth through culture, film makers are making efforts to raise awareness of the outside world as seen in Nigeria’s short film history. There appear to be certain lapses and permissiveness of unwanted local content that seem to imprint and aggravate the negative picture that the nation and the African continent are already experiencing in the minds of the viewers of global film watching, not just internationally, but also in the minds of Nigerians that include numerous ethnic groups.

Mansfield and Milner (1999) note that Nigerian films or films have become very popular among Nigerians at home and abroad over the years, and an increasing number of foreigners have also established great love for Nigerian films. Nigerians are feeling a spiritual bond worldwide through these movies. Nevertheless, the increasing presence of Western media and the idea of globalization seem to be causing a shift from Nigerian culture to Western culture, especially in urban areas and towns Mgbejume (2019).Much of the films seen in commercial theatres are mainly intended to amuse and are fictitious rather than factual, and incidents that have actually existed are dramatized where they are founded on reality gender, violence, traditions, and so on are the duels in many entertainment films. In Nigeria and Africa, movies such as ‘half of a yellow sun’ tell of war, devotion, cruelty, and passion while painting a searing portrait of the tragedy that happened during the civil war of 1960 in Biafra. A specific medium of communication is home video; its visual bias gives it a universal appeal and influence.In the development and unity of a country or nation as a group of persons, ethnicity, and race, film plays an important role. It is a real medium of national progress and reconciliation. One of the key areas in which film perform is in the realm of culture. According to Maheswari (2010) Film is a purveyor of culture. It helps to preserve the culture of a people from eroding away Baylis, Smith, Owens (2018). Culture is the peculiar the way of life of a group of people, nation or tribe including their food, costumes, dressing, music, marriage and burial practices etc and it is the bedrock of the essence of being of a people.Cannes Film Festival Knocks, Where is Nigeria, Lacey (2019) The role of film in cultural promotion and national integration is retraced and stressed when he says, “I am not aware of any nation that has been able to achieve growth and unity without proactively promoting its essential cultural components,” and this is valid because culture is a significant aspect of a people’s life.. According to Nelmes (2015) the film is a cultural index, a cultural reflector, an agent of socialization, and therefore an instrument of unity for the country. The film constitutes an enterprise whose production is explicitly ideological, he says. What this means is that in this situation, the movie shows home video what it tries to convey to its viewers, what it seeks to offer, what it wants its audience to appreciate and what it wants its audience to digest. This is why it is pertinent to review the home video as an image of unity and national development for Nigeria. Behuria (2012) opines that as “Nigerian movie is a popular culture and as expected, it must mirrorize, recreate and tell stories of the societies in which it subsists. According to Kumar (2019) no exception is the Nigerian film industry. In the peace and national growth in Nigeria, Nigerian movies play an important part. To popularize government policies and ideologies among Nigerians, Nigerian home video is used. Owing to its ability to hold a captive audience Nigerian home video are used more than any other means of mass communication to Aid ideas of positive social transformation as well as to consolidate and build new relationship between culture and national unity and development for instance, the National Orientation Agency and the Ministry of Information and Culture uses home videos to propagate awareness on issues such as the anti-corruption, poverty alleviation, etc. It is a tool of national mobilization, unity, a sign of national autonomy and a means of the preservation of heritage and sovereignty. Therefore this study aims at the assessment of Nigerian video in propagating national unity and development

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Nigeria today, experience in everyday life communal mutuality in village festivals, traditional or native dancing tunes and steps, religious worships and socio-cultural cooperation in works.  This experience can be communicated to people through the use of home videos. Home video is a unique means of communication; its visual bias gives it a long lasting appeal and impact. Nigerian home videos play important roles in the development and unity of any groups of people, ethnicity, and race as a nation or country. It is an important tool for national development and also a tool to foster unity between ethnic groups. Home video is a purveyor of culture. It helps to preserve the culture of a people from eroding away. In Nigeria today the reflection of negative cultures such as killings, cultism, rituals are the order of the day in Nigerian movies these negative contents do not truly reflect the culture of the Nigerian people. This contents have in return influence the minds of it audience.On this background the researcher wants to asses Nigerian home video in propagating National unity and development.

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The main aim of the study is Assessment of Nigerian Video in Propagating National Unity and Development. Specific objectives of the study are:

1) To examine the origin of Nigerian Nollywood industry in Nigeria

2) To examine how Nigerian home video project local cultural values to help promote National unity and development

3) To examine the impact of Nigerian home video on National unity and development in Nigeria

4)To determine the level of national unity home video brought to the Nation

5)To suggest ways Nigerian films can be used to propagate National unity.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1) What is the origin of Nigerian Nollywood industry in Nigeria?

2) How does Nigerian home video project local cultural values to help promote National unity and development?

3) What is the impact of Nigerian home video on National unity and development in Nigeria?

4)What is the level of national unity the Nigeria home video brought to the Nation?

5) What are the ways Nigerian films can be used to propagate National unity?

1.5 HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY

Hypothesis 1

HO:Nigerian home video does not have a significant impact on National unity and Development in Nigeria

H1:Nigerian home videos have a significant impact on National unity and Development in Nigeria

Hypothesis 2

HO:There is no significant relationship between Nigerian home video and National development in Nigeria

H1: There is a significant relationship between Nigerian home video and National development in Nigeria

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study would enable the researcher to pass their experience on the subject matter to Film makers, government ministries, schools which include students and lecturers to serve as a medium for further research.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The general scope of this study covers Assessment of Nigerian Video in Propagating National Unity and Development

1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The researcher was faced with the following constraints in carrying out this study:
Time: The time within the researcher is too short to carry on the detail study on this topic.
Resources: Another constraint of the researcher is financial resources to carry on the detail study of this topic.
Data: Another limitation to this study will be lack of data to make valid study on the research problem.

1.9 OPREATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

HOME VIDEO:prerecorded videocassettes or videodiscs marketed for home viewing OR a homemade movie usually filmed with a camcorder.

NATIONAL UNITY:National unity is the desire of the citizens of a country to promote peace and stability (common interest) in theircountry. Few factors that Factors that Promote National Unity.Include peace, security.good government in power.

DEVELOPMENT:Development is a process that creates growth, progress, positive change or the addition of physical, economic, environmental, social and demographic components. The identification of these traps enables relating to political – economic –social conditions in a country in an attempt to advance development

PROPAGATING:The act or action of propagating: such as.

a)Increase (as of a kind of organism) in numbers.

b)The spreading of something (such as a belief) abroad or into new regions.

c)Enlargement or extension (as of a crack) in a solid body.

NOLLYWOOD: Nollywood is a sobriquet that originally referred to the Nigerian film industry. The origin of the term dates back to the early 2010s, traced to an article in The New York Times.


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