1.1. Background of the Study
Entrepreneurship is a system that happens to be very much regarded and encouraged by various countries, especially developing countries as the structure is seen to be very beneficial not just to the economic system of the country but also to the socio-cultural and even the financial well-being of the citizens. The entrepreneurship system by definition is described as an individual or an organization’s capacity and willingness to setup an organized system through profit generation can be initiated and achieved (Katila, Chen, & Piezunka, 2012). While on the other hand, the apprenticeship system is known to be a systematic method of training a new generation on appropriate methods through which tasks are carried out and effectively with from which the undertakers of these trainings now acquire new skill sets to enable them fit into an already existing professional system. According to Wallis (2018), this system of apprenticeship was developed in the middle ages and was later adopted by craftsmen and even governments. Majority of the apprentices known at this time happened to be male and few females were observed in sectors such as tailoring, seamstress, cordwainer, baker and other related sectors (Werner, 2016). Success in entrepreneurship particularly has been linked to apprenticeship skill development. Apprenticeship skill is an instructional method for teaching an acceptable way of understanding and carrying out tasks, solving problems, and dealing with problematic situations (Collins et al., 2011) and is a major determinant for SMES success in Nigeria.
The attitude for a successful apprenticeship programmed for individuals include initiative, perseverance, and ambition. In practically every skilled occupation, a fundamental knowledge of arithmetic is important. The ability to read, write and speak well is important in any work of life but in some apprenticeship occupations, it is more relevant than in others.
Apprenticeships are an efficient and cost-effective way of building a workforce and promoting entrepreneur success in Nigeria. Unfortunately, the Nigerian school system does not consider apprenticeship as a genuine path into a career (Ebiringa and Okorafor, 2010).
However, based on the topic to be examined, the various methods by which apprenticeship skills effect entrepreneurial would be critically analyzed, examining the apprenticeship organizational structure in various countries where it has been well known to be used, taking examples from Germany, Britain and even West Africa. The practicality of the system as well will be observed, looking at the motivational factors behind the apprenticeship and skills acquisition and how it aligns with people’s mindset, enabling them learn from the process and how this then affects the entrepreneurial mentality in people as observed in Oziengbe (2016).
Statement Of The Problem
Through the apprenticeship process, an apprentice can be instilled with the entrepreneurial mentality through which a business can be formed and the skill learned will be put into practice through which he or she would benefit from being either a basic or special vocational qualification. On the other hand, an entrepreneur is also capable of undertaking vocational training to improve develop apprenticeship skills especially if it is just a start up and there is the zeal to boost up the business. Furthermore, an experienced entrepreneur can also benefit from vocational trainings if he wishes, as this can help develop his innovative and managerial capabilities. All these in the process of this research work would be examined and further related to sectors, analyzing the various effects in aspects such as social, economic and even political sectors.
Moreover, when the structure and results derived from the apprenticeship system is looked at, examining the innovative and productive capacity it inputs in individuals as a result of the skill set generated from the process, through which ones entrepreneurial capabilities is also directly developed, one can through all this benefits ascertain the impact and effectiveness of the system and as well the need to further develop and promote the system to encourage people to further partake in especially as it is generally regarded as an informal system of learning especially when compared to the formal system structure (Oyeneye, 1981).
However, to a large extent, apprenticeship and entrepreneurship happens to be very relatable as the skills acquired from apprenticeship processes usually foster entrepreneurial mindset in apprentices due to their skill set acquisition which promotes a creative and innovative mindset as well and in most cases however, apprentices usually engage in the process for the aim of acquiring entrepreneurial mindset through they can develop and expand their aspiring or existing businesses.
1.3 Aims of the Study
The major purpose of this study is to examine the effect of apprenticeship skills on entrepreneurial success. Other general objectives of the study are:
- To examine the extent to which apprenticeship skills has influenced entrepreneurial system in Nigeria.
To examine how apprentices acquire technical and entrepreneurial skills for self-employment.
To examine the effect of apprenticeship skills on entrepreneurial success in the country.
To examine challenges encountered by apprentices in course of skill acquisition in Nigeria.
To examine the relationship between apprenticeship skills and entrepreneurial success in Nigeria.
To examine how to proffer solutions to the issues apprentices encountered in the course of skill acquisition in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
- To what extent has apprenticeship skills influenced entrepreneurial system in Nigeria?
How do apprentices acquire technical and entrepreneurial skills for self-employment?
What is the effect of apprenticeship skills on entrepreneurial success in the country?
What are the challenges encountered by apprentices in the course of skill acquisition in Nigeria?
What is the relationship between apprenticeship skills and entrepreneurial success in Nigeria?
What are the proffered solutions to the issues apprentices encountered in the course of skill acquisition in Nigeria?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
HO: There is no significant effect of apprenticeship skills on entrepreneurial success in Nigeria
H1: There is a significant effect of apprenticeship skills on entrepreneurial success in Nigeria
HO: There is no significant relationship between apprenticeship skills and entrepreneurial success in Nigeria
H1: There is a significant relationship between apprenticeship skills and entrepreneurial success in Nigeria
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study is significant in that it will help to identify the importance of entrepreneurship development in Nigeria.
This study is significant in the sense that it will: Highlights the importance of entrepreneurship training and its impact on unemployment reduction in Nigeria. One of the SDG (Sustainable Development Goal) goals highlights education (training) as a critical factor to reducing poverty and dependency. Allow the identification of the concept and framework of entrepreneurship development and its contribution to Nigeria’s economy. Generate greater awareness among tertiary institutions on the importance of having proper and practical strategies for acquiring apprenticeship skills. This research work will further serve as a guide and provides insight for future research on the topic and related field for academia’s and policy makers who are willing to improve on it.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study is based on effect of apprenticeship skills on entrepreneurial success.
1.8 Limitation of Study
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Apprentice: A learner who has agreed to work for a skilled employer for a fixed period of time in return for being taught his master trade, art, craft or technical job.
Apprenticeship: The period of learning a specific trade, craft, art or technical jib as an apprentice.
Work Process: A list of skills, which sets forth what the apprentice, is to learn and perform. When the apprentice’s productivity and proficiency have reached the level of skill specified by the work process, and has also completed the number of hours required, the apprentice will have reached the Journeyperson skill level.
Skills: Ability acquired through practices and competences in the environment that is outside the normal school settings, and can enable a person open his own business or be employed in an establishment