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1.1Background of the study

Vocational education and training as defined by UNESCO (2010, p. 9) is “an educational process leading to the acquisition of practical skills, attitudes, knowledge and skills” knowledge of the occupations in various sectors of the social economy and social life. “VET as an education system enriches the management of economic and development challenges (Quisumbing, 2001).

However, this applies when the implementation of VET meets the needs of the population. VET must also be adapted to the needs of the environment. socially, economically, culturally and politically. Alam (2008) states that the strength of a nation lies in its people.

Vocational training as such is the key to human development as it determines the type of development of a country based on the quality and relevance of the offered vocational training. However, Wallenborn (2009) argues that development in developing countries, especially in Africa, is still sluggish compared to developed countries due to the quality of education and training offered. The question of the quality of education and training also concerns VET.

Therefore, the contribution of VET to development in Africa is limited. This is due to factors related to the implementation of vocational training. Vocational training was and is a common development strategy for many countries around the world, including Australia, Germany, China, Taiwan, India, Bangladesh, Ghana, Botswana and Africa South (Alam, 2008, p. 9).

Australia and Germany have used vocational training to give young people skills and knowledge to address the problem of youth unemployment (Iacovou and Arnstein, 2007). Countries such as Taiwan, China and India have further developed VET as a tool to promote the creation of skilled labor (UNESCO, 2009). This increases productivity and thus economic growth. However, the role of VET continues to be in the promotion of social development. This shows that VET plays different roles in development. VET was also implemented as an anti-poverty initiative. Among the numerous poverty alleviation initiatives, VET is a program for developing skills for young people. 2 | P a g e Tikley (2012) argues that different environmental factors need to be included in the VET system. The inability of VET to consider environmental factors undermines their impact as a development initiative. Vocational training as a youth program must also take into account the factors of youth dynamics.

1.2 Problem statement

Colley et al. (2007) point out that in the 20th century, young people face greater development challenges and are more likely to become prone to poverty. In this context, youth vulnerability includes young people aged 15 to 24 who face significant barriers to achieving or maintaining well-being (Berzin, 2010).

Despite commendations and efforts in the field of vocational training, arguments are advanced to justify their role and their effectiveness as trainees (Filmer & Fox, 2014). These arguments are due to the fact that VET does not provide qualified professionals for the development process in Africa (UNESCO, 2006). Although VET has contributed to some extent to the training and skills development of young people, it has not only provided skilled workers to meet the needs of the labor market (Berzin, 2010). This is due to social and economic factors that influence the implementation of VET and prevent the program from achieving its objectives. One of these aims is the role of VET in reducing the vulnerability of adolescents. VET in Nigeria does not lack these arguments and doubts

1.3 Purpose of the study

The purpose of this study is the examination of the Impact of Vocational studies on graduate trainees. Specifically the study intends to:

1 examine the effect of Vocational studies on employment of graduate trainee

2 examine the effect of Vocational studies on enterprenural skill of graduate trainee

3 examine the factors affecting effective implementation of vocational studies

1.4 Significance of the study

The study aims to help the public take a comprehensive approach to impact of vocational studies. The study will also be of interest to higher education institutions, research institutes and individual researchers interested in vocational studies and will use the results for further research. The research will help individual understand their position relative to the vocational skills.

    1. Study hypothesis

The study hypothesis is:

HO: Vocational studies doesn’t significantly affect employment of graduate trainee

H1: Vocational studies significantly affect employment of graduate trainee

Hypothesis two

HO: Vocational studies doesn’t significantly affect enterprenural skill of graduate trainee

H1: Vocational studies significantly affect enterprenural skill of graduate trainee

    1. Scope and Limitations of the Study

The study scope is limited to investigating the the Impact of Vocational studies on graduate trainees. Limitation faced by the research was limited time and financial constraint

    1. Definition of Basic terminologies

Transition to work: Securing of employment in the formal or informal sector after successful completion of vocational training (Clark, 2007).

Vocational education and training: Education which prepares trainees for jobs based on manual or practical approach (Clark, 2007).

Vocational training: It entails equipping learners with skills such as carpentry, tailoring, masonry and so on (Clark, 2007).

    1. Organisation of study

The study is grouped into five chapters. This chapter being the first gives an introduction to the study. Chapter two gives a review of the related literature. Chapter three presents the research methodology; chapter four presents the data analysis as well as interpretation and discussion of the results. Chapter five gives a summary of findings and recommendations.

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