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1.1Background of the study

Ganley (1989) states that domestic violence includes: physical violence, sexual violence, emotional abuse and abuse of property and pets. According to him, exposure to these forms of violence has considerable potential to be perceived as a threat to the lives of victims and can make them feel vulnerable, helpless and, in extreme cases, horrified. Dutton (1992) defines physical violence as any behavior that involves the intentional use of force against the body of another person and that may cause physical injury, injury and / or pain. This includes pushing, hitting, slapping, suffocating, using an object to hit, twisting a part of the body, forcing the ingestion of an unwanted substance and using a weapon. Dutton (1994) defines sexual abuse as any unwanted sexual intimacy imposed on an individual by another.

This may include oral stimulation or anal or vaginal penetration, forced nudity, forced exposure to material or explicit sexual activity. Compliance can be achieved by actual physical force or threat or other forms of coercion. Psychological abuse 2 may include derogatory statements or the threat of loss of life by another person. It can also involve isolation, economic threats and emotional abuse.

Straus and Gelles (1990), domestic violence is widespread and affects all social and economic groups. A national survey of more than 6,000 American families found that between 53% and 70% of violent men also abuse their children. Domestic violence is one of the least reported crimes in the United States, and the Department of Justice estimated in 1998 that there were between 960000 and four million domestic incidents each year.

In 1994, statistics from the justice office estimated that around 92% of domestic violence cases involved women. Wopadovi (women against domestic violence) 2014, domestic violence threatens many Nigerian families and, unfortunately, increases in our society. Many people, including the vast majority of women, have been injured, disabled and killed as a result of domestic violence. After recent events in which domestic violence has become commonplace and every day the death of spouses and lovers of domestic violence is reported, it has become a high priority to make domestic violence a threat that must be addressed. Face as soon as possible. All the seriousness that you deserve. Wopadovi also points out that domestic violence does not recognize the standards of class or social education. Domestic violence according to Wikipedia (2004) is a problem as in many parts of Africa. In Nigeria, there is a deep cultural belief that it is socially acceptable to beat a woman to discipline her spouse.

1.2 Problem statement

Although domestic violence has been recognized today as one of the most entrenched and widespread forms of violence in Nigeria, its influence on schoolchildren has not yet received the same level of attention (Tony, 2002). Child victims or witnesses of domestic violence may develop physical, psychological and behavioral problems as a result of physical, verbal, psychological and other forms of violence. This can affect their participation in school because they can go to school when they are too afraid to learn and many of them may fall behind in class or in life because of exposure to domestic violence (Wathen, 2003). The short- and long-term emotional and physical sequelae of domestic violence can affect school attendance, student achievement, and behavioral patterns of students in school and participation in the classroom. It is not known how the types and extent of domestic violence affect student achievement and school participation.

1.3 Purpose of the study

The purpose of this study is to examine the domestic violence on children and its effect on academic performance, using the Edo State as a case study. Specifically the study:

1. Establish the extent of various forms of domestic violence among households of different socio economic characteristics in Edo state.

2. Determine the influence of domestic violence on pupil’s school attendance in primary schools in Edo state.

3. Determine the influence of domestic violence on academic performance of pupils in primary schools in Edo state.

    1. Significance of the study

Policy makers, school administrators and teachers in the education sector can use the findings of this study to formulate strategies for implementing PFH that promote the participation of children from vulnerable families in violence. Local government and social workers, as well as non-governmental organizations (NGOs), can use these findings to identify these abused families and children, develop strategies to combat domestic violence, and encourage socially inclusive intervention mechanisms. in poor neighborhoods The study can also benefit the legal or legislative framework by providing the necessary information to incorporate the laws of protection against domestic violence and school participation, the basic rights of education and regulations. The findings can also contribute to the national debate on domestic violence and its control, as well as ideas for future research on the causes, impacts and relationships of domestic violence with other elements of social and economic well-being. the society.

    1. Study hypothesis

The study hypotheses are:

Ho1 There is no significant difference in the extent of various forms of domestic violence among households of different socio-economic characteristics in Edo state.

Ho2 Domestic violence does not significantly influence pupils’ school attendance in primary schools in Edo state.

Ho3 Domestic violence does not significantly influence pupils’ academic performance in primary schools in Edo state.

    1. Scope and Limitations of the Study

The study scope is limited to investigating the impact of domestic violence on children and its effect on academic performance of primary school pupils in Edo state. Limitation faced by the research was limited time and financial constraint

    1. Definition of Basic terminologies

Academic performance – It was the mean score in examinations of a pupil in the past one year in examinations given within the municipality.

Attendance – This referred to the number of times a pupil was present during learning activities in school in one term.

Child abuse – This consists of anything, which individuals, institutions or processes do or fail to do which directly or indirectly harms children or damages their prospects of safe and healthy development into adulthood.

Child labour – This is any form of economic exploitation in which the child is involved or performance of any work that is likely to be hazardous or interfere with the child’s physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development

    1. Organisation of study

The study is grouped into five chapters. This chapter being the first gives an introduction to the study. Chapter two gives a review of the related literature. Chapter three presents the research methodology; chapter four presents the data analysis as well as interpretation and discussion of the results. Chapter five gives a summary of findings and recommendations.

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