THE IMPORTANCE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS STUDENTS
1.1 Background to the Study
Instructional materials serve as a channel between the teacher and the students in delivering instructions. They may also serve as the motivation on the teaching-learning process. It is use to get the attention of the students and eliminate boredom. Instructional materials are highly important for teaching; especially for inexperienced teachers. Teachers rely on instructional materials in every aspect of teaching. They need material for background information on the subject they are teaching. Young teachers usually have not built upon their expertise whenever they enter into the field. Teachers often use instructional materials for lesson planning. These materials are also needed by the teachers to assess the knowledge of their students. Teachers often assess students by assigning tasks, creating projects, and administering exams. Instructional materials are essential for all of these activities.
According to Oni (1992), instructional resources are teachers’ strategic factor in organizing and providing education. This is so because they help to elaborate a concept that the teacher could not, without an instructional material. This allows 2 students to learn more comfortably therefore influencing positively their academic performance. Writing on the role of instructional materials in teaching and learning, Balogun (1982) commented that science education programmes cannot be taught effectively without the existence of equipment for teaching. This is because instructional materials help those who learn to develop problem-solving skills and scientific attitudes. Elaborating further on the same point, Ajayi and Ogunyemi (1990) emphasize that when instructional materials are provided to meet relative needs of teaching process, students will have access to the reference materials mentioned by the teacher, and also each student will be able to learn at his or her own pace. The overall result is that students will perform much better.
In his own perspective, Fadeiye (2005) saw instructional materials as visual and audio-visual aids, concrete or non-concrete, used by teachers to improve the quality of teaching and learning activities in Social Studies. Agina-Obu (2005) submitted that instructional materials of all kinds appeal to the sense organs during teaching and learning. Isola (2010) also described instructional materials as objects or devices that assist the teachers to present their lessons logically and sequentially to the learners. Oluwagbohunmi and Abdu-Raheem (2014) acknowledged that instructional materials are such used by teachers to aid explanations and make learning of subject matter understandable to students during teaching learning process. In the same vein, Obanya (2004) asserted that several studies carried out in some areas in Nigeria indicated that the results of Senior School Certificate Examinations was completely bad in nearly all subjects offered by the students. He stressed further that only about 10% of candidates ‘meaningfully passed’ the examination.Abdu-Raheem (2011) asserted that non availability and inadequacy of instructional materials are major causes of ineffectiveness of the school system and poor performance of students in schools. Ahmed (2003) confirmed that in most secondary schools in Nigeria, teaching and learning take place under a most un-conducive environment without access to essential materials. Eniayewu (2005) posited that it is very important to use instructional aids for instructional delivery to make students acquire more knowledge and to promote academic standard. In addition, Ajayi and Ayodele (2001) stressed the importance of availability of instructional materials to achieving effectiveness in educational delivery and supervision in the school system. Ogbondah (2008) alerted on the gross inadequacy and underutilization of instructional materials necessary to compensate for the inadequacies of sense organs and to reinforce the capacity of dominant organs.He noted that school teachers should try their possible best in the provision of locally made materials in substitution for the standard ones to promote their lessons.Enaigbe (2009) noted that basic materials such as textbooks, chalkboard and essential equipment like computer, projector, television and video are not readily available in many schools.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
One of the major problems facing education sector in Nigeria is the low level of the performance of secondary school students in both local and standardized examinations. It has become a great concern for researchers, educators and all education stake-holders over the years. It was observed that students usually fail in examinations owing to improper teaching methods and lack of essential teaching aids for instructional delivery. (Afolabi, 2009). During the teaching process instructional material otherwise known as teaching aids meant to make instruction more meaningful, clear and much more interesting to students are brought in display. There is a general impression that education is not achieving the desired objectives especially with high incidence of students’ poor performance in senior secondary certificate examination. This situation has assumed a precarious dimension in all secondary schools in Nigeria. The failure of educational system to provide adequate and appropriate teaching-learning aids in order to improve academic performance of students is of a great concern to government, educational institutions and other concern citizens.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study is to find out the importance of academic instructional materials on the academic performance of students, specifically the study intends to;
1. To explore the views of teachers and students on the extent to which instructional facilities affect student performance.
2. To examine the challenges that teachers in secondary schools face in accessing instructional materials.
3. Assess the strategies that teachers use to minimize the challenges of attaining and using quality instructional materials
4. Analyze the effect of instructional materials on the academic performance of secondary school students
1.4 Research Question
1. What is the view of teachers and students on the extent to which instructional facilities affect student performance?
2. What are the challenges that teachers in secondary schools face in accessing instructional materials?
3. Is there strategies that teachers use to minimize the challenges of attaining and using quality instructional materials
4. Is there any significance effect of instructional materials on the academic performance of secondary school students?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho: there is no significance effect of instructional materials on the academic performance of secondary school students
Hi: there is significance effect of instructional materials on the academic performance of secondary school students
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study intended to find the impact of inadequate instructional materials in secondary schools. The knowledge obtained would help the government most especially local government and educators to reflect and make evaluation on the requirements of other instructional materials apart from class-rooms alone. Since the beginning of secondary schools, the government and local communities have been putting more emphasis on the construction of new class-rooms, and recently, construction of laboratories. However, provision of quality secondary school education requires more than just class-rooms and laboratory buildings. The evaluation of instructional materials, along with other reform movements, allows educators and planners to plan for appropriate environment for teaching and learning so as to provide quality secondary school education.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This research work will be conducted in Ondo state, four secondary schools will be selected for this research, both public and private school will be selected.
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
Finance for the general research work will be a challenge during the course of study. Correspondents also might not be able to complete or willing to submit the questionnaires given to them.
However, it is believed that these constraints will be worked on by making the best use of the available materials and spending more than the necessary time in the research work. Therefore, it is strongly believed that despite these constraint, its effect on this research report will be minimal, thus, making the objective and significance of the study achievable.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Instruction materials: facilities given to students, so that they can use every opportunity to develop full potential. Instructional materials include fixtures, equipment, and buildings necessary for the effective and efficient operation of the program of public education (uslegal.com, 2015).
Academic performance: refers to the level at which a student, teacher or institution has managed to reach their educational goals.