FACTORS AFFECTING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The Universal Basic Education (UBE) is a broad concept and more ambitious programme than that of Universal Primary Education (UPE) programme. The Universal Basic Education is intend to inculcate more forcefully on the life of Nigerians than the Universal Primary Education.
Although the Universal Basic Education is a programme.it also an educational programme for the acquisition of functional literacy and skills, the type of education that will inculcate an understanding of the need for unity such that is required in Nigeria (Dike 2000).
President OlusegunObasanjo formally launched the Universal Basic Education in Nigeria on 30th September 1999. The programme is intended to be universal, free and compulsory. since the introduction of western education in 1842 (Eya 2000) regions state, and federal government in Nigeria have shown a keen interest in education.
The goal of the programme is to provide functional universal and quality education for all Nigerians irrespective of age, sex, race, region, occupation or location.The federal Government of Nigeria sees primary education as the education given in an institution for children age 6 – 11 plus. It further goes on to say that since the rest of the education system is built upon it. The primary level is the key to the success or failure of the whole system of Education. The duration shall be six years (FRN 2004).
After the launching of Universal Basic Education un 1999 by then President Olusegun Obasanjo it objectives includes:
i. Facilitation of growth and development
ii. Enhancement of quality of education for all citizens
iii. Addressing the implementation of educational policies designed to achieve the notable objectives in the national policy on education (Ekere Felix 2000).
It is important to note that some of the problems that led to the failure of universal education to achieve its set objectives which was launched in 1976 still manifest in the implementation of universal basic education programme. Such problems which largely bother on finance, infrastructures such as laboratories, classrooms, furniture and fittings and still inadequate in Nigeria Basic school (I. A. Ajayi 2007).
However, the recent relaunching of a similar programme – the Universal Basic Education Scheme would suggest that after failure of the earlier programme – Universal Primary Education Scheme and after a careful analysis of the factors that brought about the failure of the earlier scheme, a more careful planning would have taken place. (Ayeni 2000).
Primary Education is the first formal Education which the individual is expose to. It is believed to be the foundation of the other type of Education which the individual could be exposed to.
The Universal Basic Education has begun implementation has been carried out with scholar looking into each of the stage, this study therefore interested in discovering the implementation process in Abeokuta South Local Government Area of Ogun State.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Over the years, the implementation of basic education programme in Nigeria has been facing lots of constraints, and it seems like the problem of the Nigeria educational programme does not always lie with adequate knowledge and policies, but the effective implementation of the programme. The Universal Primary Education (UPE) programme which is one of the basic education programmes introduced in the country in the past seems to have failed due to several factors, and such factors were attributed to non-availability of fund, lack of trained teachers, lack of infrastructural facilities, poor supervision of the programme, inadequate instructional materials, among others. There also seem to be lots of obstacles affecting the implementation of the current Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme primary schools in Nigeria, particularly in Nsukka Education Zone of Enugu State. Most of the UBE primary schools are bedeviled with overcrowded classrooms, poor funding of the school activities, inadequate infrastructural facilities, non-availability of functional library, inadequate instructional materials, poor supervision and monitoring of the school programme among others. All these are challenges for the effective implementation of UBE programme in Nigeria.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i. What is Universal Basic Education
ii. What is the importance of Universal Basic Education
iii. How far has the Universal Basic Education gone about the implementation of its programme
iv. What are the measures needed to be taken by Universal Basic Education to have a successful implementation
1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
This study will specifically looked into
i. The meaning of Universal Basic Education
ii. Importance of Universal Basic Education
iii. Implementation of Universal basic Education
iv. Measures to effective implementation of the Universal Basic Education programme.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will identifying this that will benefits in the implementation of the Universal Basic Education.