EFFECTS OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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PROJECT INFORMATION

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND STUDY
Socioeconomic statusis an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person’s work experience and of an individual’s or family’s economic and social position relativeto others, based on incomeand education, and occupation (Marmot, Michael, 2004) indicates
When analyzing a family’s social economic status, the household income, earners’ education and occupation are examined, as well as combined income, versus with an individual, when their own attributes are assessed.Lareau, Annette ( 2003) observes that
Socioeconomic status is typically broken into three categories, high, middle,and lowto describe the three areas a familyor an individual may fall into when placing a family or individual into one of these categories any or allof the three variables income,education, and occupationcan be assessed.Additionally, low incomeand little education have shown to be strong predictors of a range of physical and mental health problemsdue to environmental conditions may be the entire cause of that person’ssocial predicament to begin with.Simiyu, J.W (2001) argues that Thefamily income refers towages salaries,profit, rents and any flow of earnings received.Income canalso come in the form of unemployment or workers compensation, social security, pensions, interests or dividends, royalties, trusts, alimony, or other governmental, public, or family financial assistance.Income can belooked at in two terms, relative andabsolute. Absolute income, as theorized by economistKeyenes,is the relationship in which as income increases, so will consumption, but not at the same rate
Low income focuseson meeting immediate needs and do not accumulate wealth that could be passed on to future generations, thus increasing inequality. Families with higher and expendable income can accumulate wealth and focus on meeting immediate needs while being able to consume and enjoy luxuries and weather crises (GOK, 1983)Ominde, S.H (1964) observes that Education plays a major role in skill sets for acquiring jobs, as well as specific qualities that stratify people with higher from lower Social economic status. Annette Lareau speaks on the idea of concerted cultivation, where middle class parents take an active role in their children’s education and development by using controlled organized activities and fostering a sense of entitlement through encouraged discussion. Laureau argues that families with lower income do not participate in this movement, causing their children to have a sense of constraint. A division in education attainment is thus born out of these two differences in child rearGachathi, P (1976) indicates that Occupational prestige as one component of socio-economic status encompasses both income and educational attainment
Occupational status reflects the educational attainment required to obtain the job and income levels that vary with different jobs and within ranks of occupations. Additionally, it shows achievement in skills required for the job. Occupational status measures social position by describing job characteristics, decision making ability and control, and psychological demands on the job(Erick, Nyakundietal, 2012). So this study focuses on the effects of socio-economic conditions on the academic performance of students in senior secondary school.
1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It has been observed that children of parents with a high socioeconomic status tended to express more “disengagement” behavioursthan their less fortunate peers. In this context, disengagement behavioursrepresentactions such as fidgeting with other objects and drawing pictures while being addressed. Other participants born into less favouredcircumstances tended to make more eye contact,nods as signs of happiness when put into an interactive social environment. The more fortuitous peers felt less inclined to gain rapport with their group because they saw no need for their assistance in the future.
A family’s socioeconomic status is based on family income, parentaleducation level, parental occupation, and social status in the community such as contacts within the community, group associations, and the community’s academic performanceof the family, Families with high socioeconomic status often have more success in preparing their young children for school because they typically have access to a wide range of resources to promote and support young children’s development. They are able to provide their young children with high-quality child care, books, and toys to encourage children in various learning activities at home. Also, they have easy access to information regarding their children’s health, as well as social, emotional, and cognitive development. In addition, families with high socioeconomic status often seek out information to help them better preparetheir young children for school.
So this study is aimed at investigating the effects of socio-economic conditions on the academic performance of students in senior secondary schools in Ota Local government of Ogun State.
1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY     
The general purpose of this study is to examine effects of socio-economic conditions on the academic performance of students in senior secondary schools in Ota Local government of Ogun State. The specific objectives of the study are:
1.     To examine the impact of family background on the academic performance of students in senior secondary schools in Ota Local government of Ogun State.
2.     To find out the influence of home environment on the academic performance of students in senior secondary schools in Ota Local government of Ogun State.
3.     To know the implication of peer influence on the academic performance of students in senior secondary schools in Ota Local government of Ogun State.
4.     To ascertain the effects of school environment on the academic performance of students in senior secondary schools in Ota Local government of Ogun State.
5.     To determine the relationship between parents’ income and the academic performances of students in senior secondary schools.
1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The relevant research questions related to this study are:
1.     What is the impact of family background on the academic performance of students in senior secondary schools in Ota Local government of Ogun State?
2.     What is the influence of home environment on the academic performance of students in senior secondary schools in Ota Local government of Ogun State?
3.     What is the implication of peer influence on the academic performance of students in senior secondary schools in Ota Local government of Ogun State?
4.     What are the effects of school environment on the academic performance of students in senior secondary schools in Ota Local government of Ogun State?
5.     What is the relationship between parents’ income and the academic performances of students in senior secondary schools?
1.5     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 
The findings from this study are relevant to students, teachers, parents, guardians and school management.  To students, the study helps to elucidate the influence of some socioeconomic conditions on their academic performance, it has been observed that peer influence is a major factor responsible for poor academic performances among secondary students.
The financial income of parents is one of the major factors that determines the academic performances of students, this study helps parents to know their responsibilities in ensuring that their wards are financial catered for.
Poor school environment is also a factor responsible for poor academic performances among students. This study also help the school managements to know their roles in providing a conducive leaning environment for students.
This study will enhance the existing body of literature by contemplating the areas of the literature that have not yet been examined or considered and incorporating these factors into the current study. The study will thus form the basis for further studies in the field.
1.6     SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is restricted to the study of the effects of socio-economic conditions on the academic performance of students in senior secondary schools in Ota Local government of Ogun State. Secondary schools in Ota Local government are used as sample material.
1.7     LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Some of the major constraints the researchers encountered in putting up this research include lack of time, lack of willingness to give information


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