LAND EVALUATION USING CONVENTIONAL AND SATELLITE DATA TECHNIQUES IN TOMAS IRRIGATION SCHEME, KANO STATE, NIGERIA

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LAND EVALUATION USING CONVENTIONAL AND SATELLITE DATA TECHNIQUES IN TOMAS IRRIGATION SCHEME, KANO STATE, NIGERIA

Abstract:

Land evaluation study with the aid of satellite data (SPOT 5), Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and field data was conducted in Tomas irrigation scheme, Kano state. The soil map produced by Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources (MANR, Kano) in 1987 was digitized and used for further analysis. The mapping units were Ballauda (Ba), Sansan (Sn), Tomas (To) and Ladi (La). Three major land use types (LUT) were identified through supervised image classification using SPOT 5 imagery, viz; irrigated land use type, rainfed land use type and ―others‖ land use type. Results indicate that, the morphological properties were generally similar. Sand was the dorminant size fraction in all the mapping units ranging from 720 to 900 g kg-1, with textures ranging from loamy sand to sandy loam. Bulk density varied between 1.14 and1.69 Mgm-3 and particle density between 1.48 and 2.68 Mgm-3. The available water holding capacity of the soils ranged from 0.1 to 8.2 % revealing the limited capacity of the soils to retain enough moisture for plant growth. The chemical properties of the mapping units indicated a strongly acidic to near neutral soil reaction with pH of 5.2 to 6.6. The values of organic carbon and total nitrogen were generally low, with values ranging from 0.4 to 11.4 g kg-1 and 1.1 to 4.2 g kg-1 respectively. Available P values ranged from 1.75 to 47.25 mg kg-1 and were rated low to high. Cation exchange capacity (CEC) 0.5 to 13.5 cmol(+) kg-1 was rated very low to moderate, while base saturation percentage (BSP) was rated low to high, with values ranging from 24.56 to 76.37%. The exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) with values ranging from 1.7 to 29.0% indicates the soils were non sodic. The electrical conductivity (ECe) values were low with values from 0 to 0.23 dS m-1. Available micro-nutrients levels (Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn) were adequate in all the mapping viii units. Total elemental analysis revealed predominance of SiO2 (quartz) in all the soils. Feldspar, chlorite, kaolinite and muscovite were the dorminant minerals from clay mineralogy of the mapping units. The electrical conductivity (CE) of the irrigation was rated very low ranging from 0.09 to 0.95 dSm-1 and low for Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) with values of 0.013 to 0.09, indicating that the water was safe and suitable for irrigation. According to United State Department of Agriculture (USDA) Soil Taxonomy systems of classification, the soils were classified as Arenic Haplustepts, Typic Haplustepts, Typic Ustifluvents and Aquic Ustifluvents at the subgroup level. In the World Reference Base classification systems, the soils were classified as Haplic Arenosols, Haplic fluvisols and Gleyic fluvisol at the sub unit level. The land capability classification of the soils revealed ―marginal‖capability class (IIIfs) with major limitations of low fertility status and coarse soil texture. The extent of land utilization indicates that 86.2% of the land in the study area was over utilized. Only 12.81% of the land was properly managed, where current land use fits potential capability. Using the non parametric method, the suitability evaluation of the mapping units for irrigated rice shows that, all the pedons were‖ marginally suitable‖(S3fs), for actual suitability and ―moderately suitable‖ (S2) for potential suitability. For the parametric method, all the pedons had an index of current productivity (IPC) of 5.63(N2); hence classified as ―permanently not suitable‖ for irrigated rice production. However, for the index of potential productivity (IPP), all the pedons were also ―permanently not suitable‖ with a value of 9.0(N2), except pedon Ba1, which was currently not suitable with a value of 20.5(N1). Management options to be employed to improve the low levels SOC, total N and CEC and sandy texture of the soils includes residue mulching and organic manuring ix to regulate deep percolation and evaporation losses and conserve soil moisture in the rooting zone. Incorporation of crop residues after harvest, legume based rotation and/ or intercropping, zero or minimum tillage should be encouraged as a measure to increase organic matter build up. Application of recommended rates of N fertilizer in two unequal splits was also recommended. The socio-economic evaluation reveals high cost of labour, unreliable and inadequate water supply for irrigation and inadequate inputs supplies as part of the major challenges faced by farmers. The net farm income (NFI) to the farmers was positive with #216,800, and rate on investments (RRI) of 3.60 for every naira invested, indicating that farmers were benefitting.

LAND EVALUATION USING CONVENTIONAL AND SATELLITE DATA TECHNIQUES IN TOMAS IRRIGATION SCHEME, KANO STATE, NIGERIA

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