INHERITANCE STUDIES OFPRO-VITAMIN A ANDSOMEAGRONOMIC TRAITS INFIVE SORGHUM [SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.) MOENCH] GENOTYPES

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INHERITANCE STUDIES OFPRO-VITAMIN A ANDSOMEAGRONOMIC TRAITS INFIVE SORGHUM [SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.) MOENCH] GENOTYPES

Abstract:

Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a cereal belonging to the family Poaceae.Sorghum is an important staple food crop in northern Nigeria. Most Sorghum, varieties especially white endosperm colouredvarietieshave low pro-vitamin A (PVA) content compared to some yellow endosperm varieties leading to PVAmalnutrition on populations who depend on them as dietary source.Understanding the inheritance of PVA andother agronomic traits will assist in providing a useful tool for developing efficient breeding strategies for selecting PVAtrait in new sorghum varieties so as to combat malnutrition in Nigeria. This study was conducted to determine the gene action controlling PVAand other agronomic traitsand then their heritability in six Sorghum crosses and to compute the correlations between PVA and every other agronomic trait. Six crosses of Sorghum were developed from five sorghum genotypes comprising of two genotypes with relatively high PVA content and three genotypes relatively low PVAcontent. Field evaluation was conducted at Research Trial site of the Institute for Agricultural Research (IAR), Samaru.The trial was laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Observations were recorded on days to 50% flowering, plant height, panicle length, panicle weight, grain weight per plant, 1000-grain weight, grain yield andPVA.Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences (P < 0.01) among the six generations indicating existence of genetic variation.The grain yields were highest in F1generations which ranged from997.5 to 1252kghaˉ1 for SAMSORG 43 × SAMSORG44 andSAMSORG 17 × SAMSORG 14 respectively. In the case of SAMSORG 17 × SAMSORG 44, the P1recorded higher yield (1229.47kghaˉ1) thanF1(1208.81kghaˉ1). The F1 generationsin PVAwere midway between theparental values, 7.87 mg/l, 5.76 mg/l, viii 9.71mg/l, 6.48 mg/l, 6.49 mg/l and 6.92 mg/l for SAMSORG 17 × SAMSORG 44, SAMSORG 17 × SAMSORG 14, SAMSORG 17 × CSR01,SAMSORG 43 × SAMSORG 44, SAMSORG 43 × SAMSORG 14, SAMSORG 43 × CSR01 studiedindicating preponderance of additive gene action.Significant differences for two or more individual scaling tests A, B and Cin all crosses were recorded forPVAand other traits, indicating the presence of non-allelic gene interactions. Hayman six-parameter genetic modelsuggested that additive, dominance and epistasis effects were important for PVAand othertraits,althoughthe dominance effect was significant inPVA in all the crosses but in negative direction indicating thatduplicate type of epistasis for dominant decreasing alleles was exhibited.PVA contentexhibited significance in SAMSORG 43 × SAMSORG 44, for mean7.87** ± 0.42, additive9.46** ± 2.99,dominance-5.70** ±0.66,additive × additive-8.13±2.98, additive × dominance2.93±0.66anddominance × dominance13.36**±4.32suggesting the presence of linkage or higher order epistatic interactions.Furthermore,PVAshowed high heritability (98.00%) coupled with high genetic advance of mean (66.86%) for SAMSORG 17 × SAMSORG 44 which was the pattern in most of the crosses confirming that PVA is under the influence of additive gene action in its inheritance and expression.PVAshowed significant positive genotypiccorrelationwithpanicle weight;(r=0.606)and grain yield;(r=0.591),in SAMSORG 17 ×CSR01this indicates that opportunities exist to increase PVA without lowering grain yield and other desirable agronomic traits. Generation mean analysis indicated that non allelic gene interactions is the integral part of genetic architecture of the present materials used in this study and that selection of PVA in early generation is sufficient.

INHERITANCE STUDIES OFPRO-VITAMIN A ANDSOMEAGRONOMIC TRAITS INFIVE SORGHUM [SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.) MOENCH] GENOTYPES

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