• Format
  • Pages
  • Chapters






Migration is considered as the movement of people from one geographical region to another, which may be on temporary or permanent basis (Adewale, 2005). People migrate based on the prevailing conditions and the reasons for it vary from one person to another depending on the situation that brought about the decision. Migration is a selective process affecting individuals or families with certain economic, social, educational and demographic characteristics. The movement of people from rural to urban areas is a common occurrence in Nigeria. The movement poses some problems in the rural as well as in the urban centre even though; there are benefits derivable from it. In most rural areas, the impact of rural-urban migration was a rapid deterioration of the rural economy leading to chronic poverty and food insecurity (Mini, 2000). These arise mainly due to excessive drain of youth from the rural populace thus leaving only the older and aged members to constitute the labour force of the rural area.

Migration to urban areas is placing increasing pressure on local government’s ability to respond to social service needs of urban populations. This is a worldwide challenge; in 2008 over half of the world’s population will be urban, and in Africa the urban population is set to double between 2000 and 2030 (UNFPA, 2007). On-going migration to urban areas is placing pressure on limited appropriate housing, resulting in increases in the numbers of urban residents now found to reside in informal housing. Informal settlements present a range of health and development challenges to governments, including access to water, sanitation, housing, and adequate health services, including HIV services (Ambert, 2006; Ambert, Jassey, & Thomas, 2007; Thomas, 2006).

Apart from smoothing income flows by providing employment during the agricultural lean season, temporary migration to urban centres is undertaken for increasing disposable income which is then invested in a variety of production and consumption uses. However, the relative importance of migration is highly contexted specific as its effects on the local agricultural economy and poverty reduction is enhanced.

The movement from rural to urban areas makes a negative impact on the quality of rural life especially when such migrants carry away their needed consumption into the city. Migration of young adults from the rural areas also placed a greater burden on the farmers. For farmers to cover the same area of land as when he had extra assistance, he must work much longer hours thus depriving him of some time for leisure or participation in various social activities. The trend of the movement of the rural people into the city has also militated against the agricultural development in these countries. The stage of agricultural development in Ughelli South is labour intensive, able-bodied men who should till the land have abandoned their role in the farms, and have engaged themselves in petty trading in the urban areas.

In recent times there are more problems associated with rural urban migration; the impacts of these problems have apparently outweighed the associated benefits. The governments are not aware of the annual internal migration trend, neither most of them know the factors responsible for the movement of rural people into their cities. At the same time, most African governments have little or no knowledge about the problems encountered by the various households in the depressed communities of their cities. This situation has made it very difficult or rather impossible for Delta state governments including Ughelli-South to plan and deliver the most needed social amenities for their subjects, especially those living in the rural areas to dissuade them from migrating into the city. More so, because of the movement of people from these rural areas, its consequent reduction in population has attracted less attention from the government as some already existing infrastructure facilities may be left non-functional and new ones may not be brought to replace the old ones. Nevertheless,

Ughievwen is a symbol of deliberate neglect as the community lacks those infrastructural facilities that make life meaningful (Ihonvbere, 2000).

According to Baskerville (1994), some rural communities like Ughievwen Community have been experiencing drift of its population into neighbouring cities and towns particularly Warri, Sapele, Ughelli and Udu. This migrating population comprises mainly people of ages between 15 and 35 years. These people make up the largest proportion of the required manpower of these areas. This movement obviously led to the reduction of the workforce and consequently decrease in the agricultural output of the area, because farming was left in the hands of aged men and women. Furthermore, the reduction in output has brought about less income and gradual increase in poverty level.

Although, these problems are of larger dimension, pervasive and are continuing unabated, not many governments have launched any regular research programme to monitor the trend of the movement of their subjects on the sustainable basis. Thus the motivation of this research is to evaluate the problems encountered by migrants, even as these problems impact the social economic status of the Ughievwen community. The study is also meant to assess the consequences of migration on the development of Ughievwen community and the main factors behind the movement of the rural people.

1.2    Statement of the Problem

In Nigeria, the rate of urbanization is increasing at an alarming rate. According to Ogunbodede (2010) urbanization rate in Nigeria is growing at an annual rate of 2.65%, this however varies from one state to another, due to the variable nature of accessibility to socio-economic services and opportunities such as, education, medical and healthcare services as well as security to mention a few. For instance, it is estimated that states such as Lagos, Oyo, Rivers, Kano, Enugu, and the Federal Capital Territory would attain population of over 10 million by the year 2020. The resultant effect of this is that there will be pressure on urban social amenities such as water, health care and electricity and most importantly the increase in commuting distance from one location to another or from one state to another. As observed by Egunjobi (1999) and Filani (2004), one of major challenges of contemporary and future urbanization and its emerging urban trends, is the fact that though, practically greater proportion of all urban population growth will take place in developing countries, these counties are currently experiencing the challenges of poverty and underdevelopment. In Nigeria, rapid urbanization in the coming decades will have profound implications for human health, as immense pressure will be put on health care delivery system, thereby raising health risks in the already increasing and vulnerable urban population in the country. In addition, rapid urbanization due to interstate migration does have implication for urban mobility and transport connectivity across the geo-political zones.

1.3    Research Objectives

There is no significant relationship between provision social amenities in urban immigration.

There is an effect of creation of job on the reduction of urban immigration in Nigeria.

To examine the challenge urban-rural immigration on urban development.

1.4    Research Questions

What is the relationship between provision social amenities in urban immigration?

What is the effect of creation of job on the reduction of urban immigration in Nigeria?

What is the challenge urban-rural immigration on urban development?

1.5    Research Hypothesis

There is no significant relationship between provision social amenities in urban immigration.

There no significant effect of creation of job on the reduction of urban immigration in Nigeria.

There is no significant effect of the challenge urban-rural immigration on urban development?



Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You May Also Like