AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF ZANGANG HILLTOP SETTLEMENT SITES IN KAURA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA.

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AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF ZANGANG HILLTOP SETTLEMENT SITES IN KAURA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA.

Abstract:

This research is an archaeological investigation of Zangang hilltop settlement sites in Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State. The settlement sites were occupied by the Attakar people who speak the Attakar language and display uniformity of cultural traits. The hills in the area provided security to the former inhabitants of the Area during the slave-raiding expeditions. The various versions of the origin and historical migration of the Attakar people to their present Area of settlement were discussed using oral tradition and written sources. Zangang tradition of origin has been linked to the hilltop settlements because the earliest settlements in Attakarare traceable to the hilltop. Also, the settlement sites in Zangang were occupied according to clans, although some clans in Zangang do not have any relationship with the hilltop settlements. This further suggests that Zangang could be a settlement of mixed origin as stated by Brandt that Attakar appears to be a tribe of mixed origin (Brandt, 1930). Using the archaeological reconnaissance and survey method, the research yields two hundred and sixty one (261) finds and features which include: Grinding stones, House Foundations, Stone tools, Granary Foundations, Monoliths, Caves/Rockshelters, Hunting Pits, Potsherds, Shrines e.t.c. Interpretation of these finds and features shows that the people were hunters and agriculturalist who also had the knowledge of pottery making. They also practiced magic and believed in supernatural powers such as the Supreme Being (Gwazi), the Spirits, Souls of the Ancestors, Totemism, Reincarnation, Withcraft, Destiny and Morals. All these helped in understanding the social organization and social structuring of the entire Attakar society.

AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF ZANGANG HILLTOP SETTLEMENT SITES IN KAURA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA.

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