A STUDY ON THE TRADITIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN HAUSA LAND

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CHAPTER ONE

 GENERAL INTRODUCTION

Traditional administration is an important relic of the pre-colonial and political order that poses a special challenge to post colonial state makers over time, the institution of traditional administration under went many changes in it’s procedures and rules of appointment, and in it’s jurisdiction and power. Some of these changes resulted from outside interferences (especially during the colonial period).

In Northern part of Nigeria as in the case elsewhere in African continent, traditional administration relevance for the post colonial political order and state – craft sterms from their control over (predominantly) rural communities. Traditional administration continues to control most of the important rural survival strategies: allocation of land, natural survival strategies allocation of land, natural resources, communal labour practices and in some instances law and order.

Their strength as rural leaders derives not only from their command over the communities, but is also firmly rooted in colonial policies of indirect rule or what Mandami (1966:37) calls decentralized despotism. It was common for traditional administration to be given extensive  powers, especially power of coercion. They became local level law maker, tax collectors, police commissioners and judges, customary law became a mechanism for upholding the colonial order perhaps even the extents that the colonial order became the “customary” colonial authorities frequently intervened in matttters traditional and customary. They regularly appointed chiefs were there were noen and disposed those traditional leaders that opposed them, although Mandani’s (ib:d) argument is a compelling one with great explanatory value he like, so many other scholars in quity of treating often very complex relationship between traditional leaders and colonial authorities in an oversimplified manner. To start with, one can present sufficient evidence that no all traditional administration accepted playing their part as depots. They resisted the colonial authorities, but not always in open conformation, secondly, he sets the relationship between traditional administration and the colonial authorities in a rather rigid cast. He suggests not only that all traditional leaders were (decentralized) despots, but also these they were so all the time. This, we know is also not extirely true. Like most others social actors, traditional leaden constantly reviewed their relationship with the colonial state, and it was not uncommon for sympathizers to become challengers.

 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY         

The Hausa people represent one of the important and politically dominant groups in Northern Nigeria. By the year 2000, the Hausa population was estimated at about twenty million. They are also one of the largest linguistic groups in the whole of Africa.

Just like other major ethnic groups in Nigeria, the origin of the Hausa people is not certain, most sholars agree that Bayajidda story is the most authentic oral tradition in Hausa land that attempt to explain the origin of Hausa state according to the legend, Bayajidda is believe to be the father of Hausa State.  He is also believe to have come from bagadad to kanem. Borne and Kenan and hence to Hausa land in present Nigeria. History tell us that Bayajidda married the daughter of the mai of Borne by whom he had a sun at Biran. After a while, Bayajidda left Biran to Daura. While in Daura, he helped to kill a snake, which had for long time vented the people from taking water from a well. According to the legend, the queen of Daura was very impressed and decided to marry him. They later had a son named Bawo, Bawo had six (06) Children. “’Banza Bakwai” which are Kebbi, Nupe, Ilorin, Ojekun, Zamfara, Yawuri, Gwari. Who later together with  Bayajida other soon at Biran, are believed to have founded the original seven Hausa states  referred to as the ‘Hausa Bakwai’ which are’’ Gobir, Kstina, Kano, Zaria, Daura, Rano and Biran’.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

This research work is to examine the way by which Hausa people rule themselves in traditional of administration title holder and the function of each of them.  

It was intended to focus on the system of administration, it also examine the dept of culturally influence on the administration and also insight the various sociological and national implication. Hence it serves as Hunt to fellow Nigeria who is non Hausa native speaker and preparing willing to live in Hausa land in other to live peacefully.

 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The study is limited to the Hausa tribe, the study will concentrated on the way by which Hausa people run their traditional administration, the researcher in not a comparism of Hausa tribe and other tribal system of administration.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study is important for several reason:

i.                    The finding will be used to identity the traditional administration of the Hausa tribe.

ii.                  It will serve as a contribution to knowledge in the subject area, it will be useful for other researcher who intends to carry-out in related area.  


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