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The study was carried to critically investigate the analysis of factors influencing material wastage on building sites in Kaduna State. To achieve this objective, three research questions were stated to guide this study. Convenience sampling was used to select project consultants in the research area. Primary data was collected through interviews and observations. Descriptive statistics, correlation and multiple regression aided by the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for data analysis. The results show poor or complex designs, lack of security, poor work conditions and topography as the factors causing material waste which can significantly predict the cost of construction sites frame construction in this region. The study noted that, 69% of building developers prefer labour contracting option despite its high contribution to material wastage. Significant factors to be addressed in minimization of materials waste during construction include: quality purchases, experienced artisans/materials handlers, adequate supervision on material handling, scheduled material delivery and good material storage practices. There is also need to adopt new technologies in construction sitess in this region.






1.1       Background of the Study

It is no news that the company that specialize in construction perform a vital function within the economic boom and growth of a countries. Economic affairs are greatly relying on the existence of a solid construction companies for the provision of jobs, investment prospects, and development of infrastructure in every sector of the economy. According to Osmani et al. (2008), industries that specialize in construction activities are among the active forces that causes the growth of any country socially and economically. Due to high rising standard of living and urbanization, there is this common characteristic for the growing demand for construction projects, especially in developing nations, and the supplementary prerequisite to provide accommodation for their countries (Nagapan et al., 2012).

The formation of facilities involves a huge monetary disbursement which makes the concentration of industries that specializes in construction more on machinery, personnel and materials (Babatunde, 2012). Industries that specialize in construction adds to environmental dilapidation through the creation of waste (Tam, 2008; Dania et al. 2007). They mentioned the various problems which are associated with the waste and they included, land use deterioration, waste resource depletion, air pollution, and non – availability of land. They also stated that all these problems are related to health and the environment, which in turn affects the optimal financial productivity of most projects in Nigeria. Adewuyi&Otali, (2013); Ameh&Itodo, (2013); Imam et al., (2008); Oladiran, (2009) “all agreed that both in developing and developed countries, cost overrun is a shared problem”. Thus cost overrun has made it hard to finish several ongoing projects within the stipulated budget, quality and time.

Memon et al. (2013), reported that most developing nations experience overrun exceeding 100% of the

initial budget of the project. Again Apolot et al. (2010), and Allahim& Liu (2012), “noted in their studies that most times there are disagreement between built-environment professionals, project users and project owners for the past seven decades in industries that specialize in construction on measures to completely remove or reduce the overrun in the budget of projects”. Lessons from other countries have revealed that material waste generated from construction industries characterizes a huge amount on the costs of construction. Consequently, the mismanagement of construction materials and waste tends to add to the overall project cost (Ameh&Itodo, 2013).  Likewise, Teo et al. (2009) “states that construction materials wasted on-site adds to cost overruns, which lead to non-completion of projects within the calculated and estimated cost”.

Sequel to the information above, Nagapan et al. (2012) declared that industries that specialize in construction has to develop its alertness, because material wastages can cause a negative effect on the construction sustainability, quality, cost and time of construction projects.


1.2 Statement of the problem

Nguyen et al., (2002) states that in spite of the studies that have stressed the future profits of reducing construction waste, there has been little growth in applying the waste-management opportunities available, to ensure that construction waste is properly reduced.

There is a problem of poor understanding and lack of awareness among the Nigerian construction professionals of the causes and sources of material waste generation at the different phase of a project.


1.3 The Aim of This Research Work

This research work aims at investigating theSources and Causes of Material Waste and Effect of Material

Waste on Cost Overrun in some selected Construction Companies in Nigeria.


1.4 Objectives of This Work

The objectives of this research work in regards to the aim are as follows:

  1. To detect the causes and sources of construction material-waste at preconstruction and construction phase of a project
  2. To establish the effects of material-waste on cost overrun.

iii. To analyze the effect construction material-waste on construction project sites


1.5 The Construction Industry in Nigeria

In the first decade after independence in Nigeria, modern construction which was referred to as the temp was at a low ebb. Only urban areas had the modern constructions which were considered the seat of the government as it marked the change or transition in the nation’s growth. Hence, economic activities were on a low ebb owing to the 1967-1970 civil war. Wahab and Alake (2007) in their work stated that from 1971 and 1975, the company observed activities triggered by rehabilitation and re construction of programs incidental from the massive destruction in the course of the civil war. Property investment was largely trending, by 1974, the year’s growth in the industry was 269.40%.

“In Nigeria in the late 60’s and early 70’s the oil boom witnessed the emergence of indigenous and foreign companies into the industry” (Ogunbiyi 1998). Conversely, there was a little drop in the industry development which got more obvious as years passed from 1976 to 1980. The Nigerian construction industry emerged from Public Works Department (PWD), it transited into the federal ministry of works. The three tiers of government, the local, state and federal award 70% of the construction contracts project while the remaining

30% is left in the hands of private section. “The construction company project plays a very important role in the economy of Nigeria”. Akindoyeni (2004) “states that in technologically advanced countries, 20% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is accounted for by the construction industry and which account for 12% of the labor force”. “He concluded that Nigeria is yet to reach the state of gladness over the issue, the company is still in charge of 61 percent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and hires up to 20 percent of the work force”. The pattern of process is seen as the most prevalent required in Nigeria.

Indigenous contractors are described as such owned and controlled by Nigerians according to (Idoro 2007). He described expatriate as multinational contractor’s workers and private firm normally jointly owned by both a Nigerian and expatriates but mainly headed by expatriates.

Oladapo (2007) states that the construction company in Nigeria is of two types, viz;: Organized formal sector and Unorganized information types. The organized formal sector consists of both foreign and indigenous industries, these are further grouped into large, medium and small firms in accordance with their levels of capitalism and yearly income.





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