ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND ACUTE PHASE PROTEIN LEVELS OF PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM ATTEND INGHEALTH CARE CENTERS IN SAMARU, KADUNA STATE

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ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND ACUTE PHASE PROTEIN LEVELS OF PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM ATTEND INGHEALTH CARE CENTERS IN SAMARU, KADUNA STATE

Abstract:

Malaria in pregnancy (MiP) is a serious public health problem which can be minimized by the use of Insecticides Treated Nets (ITNs) and Intermittent Preventive Treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp). Inflammatory protein biomarker especially C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A can be used to detect MiP at subclinical level.A total of 547 pregnant women were screened from three Primary Health Centers (PHCs) Samaru, with 75Plasmodium falciparum positive. Malaria was diagnosed by both HRP2 (RDT) and Giemsa staining techniques, while socio-demographic data was obtained using semi-structured pretested questionnaires.Haemato-analyzer was used for Hb-concentration, leucocytes and platelets counts, while spectrophotometry was used for Iron, Zinc, Copper and Albumin estimations.ELISA technique was used for serum C-reactive protein, Amyloid A, Ferritin and Transferrin determinations. Results obtained showed 13.7% prevalence rate of P. falciparum infection.The peak age specific incidence was 15-19 years (17.5%), with mean parasite density of 5925. Those with no-formal education were affected mostly (17.4%) with parasite burden of 4419; while across occupation there was no difference in terms of infection rate and mean parasite density. Pregnant women were mostly predisposed to P. falciparum infection due to non-availability of ITNs, 41.3% of pregnant mothers had not use nets at all during pregnancy.Majority(68.3%) of the pregnant mothers complied with the use of IPTp, which may have led to reduced prevalence of P. falciparuminfection in the study area. Incidence of P. falciparum infection varied significantly according to gestation period and parity, 19.9% for first trimester with mean parasite density of 7644 and primigravidae(19.0%) with mean parasite density of 9764 respectively. Patients with malaria and concomitant iron deficiency anemia (IDA) had mean sTfR level of 7.7 ±0.26 ng/ml (0.1- 5.0ng/ml), and Ferritin level of 385.8±56.6(22.5-278.6)pmol/L. Soluble xx Transferrin in normal subjects and patients withP. falciparum malaria showed no significant difference (p>0.05). Statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) was observed in patients with malaria and concomitant IDA as compared to normal control group. This results showed that estimation of changes in some Acute Phase Proteins (CRP and SAA), despite the lack of diagnostic specificity may be useful to clinicians because such changes reflect the presence and intensity of inflammatory process (malaria infection), as well as trace element metabolism during malaria infection. The cohabitation of parasite manifestation and nutritional deficiency of trace elements creates damage in the health of infected population, due alteration in Zn/Cu ratio.

ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND ACUTE PHASE PROTEIN LEVELS OF PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM ATTEND INGHEALTH CARE CENTERS IN SAMARU, KADUNA STATE

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