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The Health practices in 4 (four) tertiary institutions in Kano state was appraised, A total of 400 Students were selected randomly from Beyero University Kano, F.C.E. Kano, College of Education Kumbotso and College of Health Sciences for the administration of a structured questionnaire.

Data collected were subjected to analyses by means of SPSS Computer Package 2002 edition. One major and four sub- hypotheses were raised concerning the health practices and other variables like health instruction, health services, healthful living in schools and home-community relationship.

Using the Pearson product Moment Correlation Procedure, it was observed that all the variables were significantly related to health practices in the institutions. So, the null hypotheses were rejected.

Therefore, it is recommended that health instruction, health services, healthful school living and school home and community relationship be emphsised in the chosen tertiary institutions in Kano State to improve the living standards of students.

Front Page .. .. .. .. .. .. .. i
Title page .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ii
Certification .. .. .. .. .. .. .. iii
Declaration .. .. .. .. .. .. .. iv
Dedication .. .. .. .. .. .. .. v
Acknowledgement .. .. .. .. .. .. vi
Abstract .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. vii
Table of Contents .. .. .. .. .. .. .. viii
List of Tables .. .. .. .. .. .. .. xii

1.1 Introduction .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem .. .. .. .. 6
1.3 Research Question .. .. .. .. .. 7
1.4 Research Hypothesis .. .. .. .. .. 8
1.5 Objective of the Study .. .. .. .. .. 9
1.6 Significance of the Study .. .. .. .. 9
1.7 Delimitation of the Study .. .. .. .. 10

1.8 Limitation of the Study .. .. .. .. .. 11
1.9 Definition of Terms .. .. .. .. .. 11
2.0 Review of Related Literature .. .. .. .. 13
2.1 Introduction .. .. .. .. .. .. 13
2.2 A Review of the Concept of Health .. .. .. 14
2.3 A Brief History of the Selected Tertiary Institutions 22
2.3.1 Bayero University, Kano .. .. .. .. 24
2.3.2 Federal College of Education .. .. .. .. 25
2.3.3 Kano State College of Education, Kumbotso .. 27
2.3.4 College of Health Sciences (School of Hygiene) Kano 28
2.4 An Overview of School Health Programme .. .. 29
2.5 Descriptions of Health Education .. .. .. 35
2.6 Reasons for Health Education in Schools .. .. 44
2.7 Aims and Objectives of Health Education .. .. 52
2.7.1 Objective of School Health Programme .. .. 56
2.8 Scope of School Health Programme .. .. .. 58
2.8.1 School Health Services .. .. .. .. .. 62PAGE
2.8.3 Home School community Relationship .. .. 72
2.9 Administration and Planning of School Health
Programme 76
2.10 Summary .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 80
3.0 Research Methodology .. .. .. .. .. 81
3.1 Introduction .. .. .. .. .. .. 81
3.2 Research Design .. .. .. .. .. .. 81
3.3 Population of the Study .. .. .. .. .. 81
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques .. .. .. 82
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection .. .. .. .. 83
3.6 Validation .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 83
3.7. Pilot Study .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 84
3.8 Procedure for Data Collection .. .. .. .. 84
3.9 Procedure for Data Analysis .. .. .. .. 84

4.0 Introduction .. .. .. .. 85
4.1 Analysis of Demographic Characteristics of the
Subject .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 86

4.2 Respondents’ Opinion on Health Instructions .. 87
4.3 Respondents Opinion on Health Services .. .. 90
4.4 Assessment of the Subjects Opinion on the
Healthful School Living .. .. .. .. .. 92
4.5 Assessment of the subjects Opinion on School
Home and Community relationship to the
Promotion of Healthy Practice .. .. .. .. 94
4.6 Test of Hypotheses .. .. .. .. .. 96
4.7 Summary of Findings .. .. .. .. .. 104
4.7 Discussion .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 104


5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation .. .. 109
5.1 Summary .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 109
5.2 Conclusion .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 109
5.3 Recommendation .. .. .. .. .. .. 110
5.4 Suggestions for Further Research .. .. .. 111
References .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 112
Appendix .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 115



1.1       Introduction

Desirable health practices represent the application of good health habits to one’s routine living. The health practices that a person adopts will determine in great measure the health of that person. Practices or habits which are harmful to optimum health, such as failure to obtain proper rest or exercise, overeating, over drinking and over smoking, or failure to observe certain precautions against contracting diseases, will usually result in poor health.

Knowledge does not necessarily ensure good health practices. An individual may have at his command all the statistics as to the results of speeding at 70 miles an hour, yet unless this information is applied, it is useless. The health of an individual can be affected only by applying that which is known. At the same time, knowledge will not usually be applied unless an incentive, interest, or attitude exists which impels its application.

It can be seen, therefore, that in order to have a good school health programme, it is important to recognize the close relationship that exists among health knowledge, health attitudes and health practices, (Bucher, 1979.

In order to accomplish the health knowledge objective, health education must present and interpret scientific health data which will then be used for personal guidance. Such information will help individuals to recognize health problems and solve them by utilizing information which is valid and helpful. It will also serve as a basis for the formulation of desirable health habits and practices. In the complex society that exists today, many choices confront the individual with regard to factors that affect his health. For this reason, a reliable store of knowledge is essential.

Turner (1971) posited that, the acquisition of knowledge alone does not and will not bring about health practices. He believes that, the application of the knowledge to everyday life brings about health practices.

Some of the areas of health knowledge that should be understood by students and adults include nutrition, the need for rest, sleep and exercise, protection of the body against changing temperature conditions, contagious disease control, the dangers of self medication and community resources for health. If such topics are brought to the attention of persons everywhere, and if the proper health attitudes and practices are developed, better health will result.

Previously in Nigeria, emphasis was placed on curative services. But of recent, emphasis is now shifting towards prevention of diseases through health education progrommes. Furthermore, the Nigeria National Health policy of 1988 as well as the strategy for achieving health for all by the year 2000 have to some extent, reduced to the minimum, some of the health problems, (Federal Ministry of Health, 1990). This has been achieved by education and made more effective through the primary health care strategy.


It is pertinent to note that only the appropriate health education of the public can induce the awareness, motivation, mobilization and practices needed. Since health education involves behavioural change and hence is a slow process, the impact of health education is not all that glaring in most of our society. This is because a lot of policies do hinder the role being played by health education. As such, there is clearly a need to formulate sound policy on health education with much emphasis on the practices.


The quality of an educational institution is reflected in the quality of students. This claim makes it of paramount importance the need to give priority attention to health knowledge and the practical application of the acquired knowledge in our tertiary institutions. Health education is a programme of training and a study designed to equip the students with the knowledge, habit and practices that will enable them enjoy good health both during the school days and in later life. It is not just a body of knowledge studied in the school but that which through action of both members of the school and community transforms or changes people’s health behaviour with good health practices. Health practices need a cooperative effort for positive change in health status of every individual. It is regarded as both a teaching process and performance process. This implies that the school health education programme should include the totality of health experiences (theoretical and practical, formal and informal) to which a child is exposed in the school environment with regard to the formation of positive health habits, knowledge and practices.


Health educators are by definition, promoters of good life style which seek to achieve optimal potential in the area of physical, spiritual, vocational, intellectual, emotional and social health (Ajala, 1986, Ajibola, 1998 & Ogunsakin, 1984). Health Educators not only promote healthy life styles, but strive to motivate individuals to foster positive attitudes towards the value of health through appropriate knowledge and practices (National Task Force on the preparation and practice of Health Educators, 1982:49).


Given the level of education already attained by lecturers and learners in our tertiary institutions, one can say these people are aware that health is something an individual can achieve for himself or herself and not something to be provided by the doctors. One may also be tempted to say that most members of our tertiary institutions are aware of the fact very many diseases prevalent in our communities could have been avoided by observing basic rules of hygiene.


Health practice is part of Health Education which is a subject of primary importance that engages a multidimensional or multidisciplinary approach to our daily activities in the society, especially in our schools. As a result of its multi-disciplinary approach, everybody believed that he or she can teach the subject. This problem has been further compounded by the general misconceptions that health education could be equated to Biology or other science subjects.


According to Udoh (1991), Health Education is a relatively new discipline or area of knowledge whose contents have grown for the pulling together of ideals, facts and knowledge from research findings and other disciplines, notably medical and biological sciences as well as the science that deal with human behaviour and people’s culture.


One of the most significant actions affecting the programme of health generally is decision-making and the general utilization of knowledge, facilities and equipment in our schools. The choices and decisions we make can have a direct bearing on our health and effective living generally. In the light of the above discussions, the researcher finds it very important to study the determinants of health practices among the students of tertiary institutions in Kano State.


1.2       Statement of the Problem


By its virtue, health education is generally supposed to serve as role model being potential agent of promoting health knowledge, behaviour and health practices. During the researcher’s twenty years of teaching in primary through the secondary and tertiary institutions, the researcher’s observation has been that most of the teachings in our schools with respect to health education are more theoretical than practical.


It is also sad to note that although a greater percentage of the people in our tertiary institutions are literate, the health practices and attitudes of some of them could bring about health problems to the individual as well as the general community. While one may admit that health education is better handled at the tertiary level than primary and secondary schools, one can regrettably note the lack of quality and availability of equipment and facilities. There are also some negative attitudes towards the proper utilization of these materials to promote healthy practices. It is a common knowledge that, there has been thorough teaching, provision of health facilities, equipment and proper campaign over medias, i.e. radio television, newspapers, magazines, etc. but still there is no significant positive change in the attitude of people, particularly students’ towards healthful living practices, e.g. promotion of students environment, accident prevention, emotional climate of school, etc.


The present health situation in most of our tertiary institutions calls for the need to embark on and observe health practices that are purposeful in nature. In the light of the above, the researcher intends to find out the determinants of health practices among the students of tertiary institutions in Kano State.


1.3       Research Questions


Based on the above statement of problem, the following questions were formulated:

  • Does the health instruction influence students’ health practices?


  • Are there available health services in the institutions of higher learning in Kano State?


  • Does the healthful school living influence students’ health practices?
  • What are the roles of school, home and community in the health practices among students of higher learning in Kano State?


1.4       Research Hypothesis


The following hypothesis has been proposed for this study:-


Major Hypothesis

There is no significant relationship of Health instruction,Health  services,   Healthful   school   living,   School-home    and community environment with Health practices among students of tertiary institutions in Kano State.




  • Health instruction would not have significant relationship with health practices among students of tertiary institutions in Kano state.
  • Health services would not have significant relationship with health practices among students of tertiary institutions in Kano State.
  • Healthful school living would not have significant relationship with health practices among students of tertiary institutions in Kano State.


  • Relationship between the school, home and community would not have significant relationship with health practices


among students of tertiary institutions in Kano State.


1.5.      Objective of the Study


The health of students is proper and primary concern of every management and therefore the objective of this study is to investigate on the health instruction, health services, healthful school living, school home and community relationship towards influencing students health practices to improve their living standards.


1.6       Significance of Study


The health of the students and other school workers is considered as a key factor in achieving the school objectives. Therefore, this study will enable the learners to think critically and make reasonable judgment concerning their health practices at school, home and society with the view of improving the practices.

It will also increase the likelihood of professional success in improving both the health of the students and other members of the school community.


This study, just like any research work, is meant among other things to help intending researchers wishing to carryout research on the similar area of study, thereby increasing the literature review. The findings will be beneficial to the students and other school workers in promoting their health.


1.7       Delimitation of the Study


The study is limited to selected four (4) tertiary institutions offering health education as part of their programme of study. The institutions include the following:-


  • Bayero University, Kano


  • Federal College of Education, Kano


  • Kano State College of Education, Kumbotso


  • College of Environmental Technology (School of Hygiene), Kano. The variable to be examined is delimited to the health practices


through the available health education progrommes offered in the selected tertiary institutions in Kano – State:- The determinants of Health practices include – Health instruction, Health services, Healthful school living, School-home and Community relations.


1.8       Limitation of the Study


This study is concerned with some students of Health and Physical Education Department in Kano State tertiary institutions. The findings are therefore limited to the selected group and within the state. The collection of the data was only possible after much protocol and even then, the researcher could not get the complete cooperation from some respondents.


1.9       Definition of Terms


  • Health: A complete process of wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or deformities.


  • Health Education: This is the type of education received for the betterment of humanity.


  • School Health Programme: It is the kind of programme in a school setting mainly to look into the wellbeing of the pupils/students and other members of the school community.


  • School Health Instruction: This is the kind of instruction given to students in school especially in connection with health.


  • School Health Services: These are the kind of services rendered in school, in connection to health.


  • Healthful School Living: This is a conducive environment made available in school, pertaining to health.
  • Relationship between the School, Home and Community: This includes the relationship that exists between the school, home and community.




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