STUDIES ON POPULATION DYNAMICS OF DOGS IN RELATION TO RABIES CONTROL IN KADUNA METROPOLIS, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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STUDIES ON POPULATION DYNAMICS OF DOGS IN RELATION TO RABIES CONTROL IN KADUNA METROPOLIS, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

Abstract:

Dogs perform a range of cultural, social and economic functions in the society. Dogs are kept as pets and companions, for hunting, as guards or for commercial purposes. Dog population dynamics have a major impact upon the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. As such, understanding domestic dog population has been recognized as central to the design of effective rabies control programmes. This study was carried out to determine the spatial distribution of dog population, vaccination status of dogs, and rabies related dog bites in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria. Dog population census was carried out within Kaduna metropolis in May-July 2014 using direct street count and questionnaire survey aided by aerial photographic coverage of the city to define enumeration areas, with the use of Geographic Information System to ascertain the spatial spread of dog population. The city was classified into four zones, namely Kaduna North, Kaduna South, Chikun and Igabi Local Government Areas. One thousand questionnaires were directly administered at household and compound levels to capture data on socio-economic profile of dog owners, reasons for/not keeping dogs and types of management system practiced, and dog count. Information on rabies vaccination status was obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture Zonal Veterinary Clinic Magajin Gari, Kaduna, Kaduna State from 2004-2010, the existing records of reported cases of dog bite in humans was also obtained for a period of ten years (2004-2014). The results of questionnaire survey revealed a total of 324 dogs. There were 199 (61.4%) male and 125 (38.6%) female dogs in the population. Young dogs (<6months old) were 67 (20.7%), while adult dogs (>6months old) were 257 (79.3%). The finding of this study showed a dog to human ratio of 1:28.9. Dog distribution ranged from172 (53.1%) in Chikun L.G.A, to 3 (0.9%) in Igabi L.G.A. There was no significant difference (ᵡ2 = 2.1, P > 0.05) in the distribution of sexes of dogs. Most dogs (94.4%) viii are kept as guard dogs in their owner‟s premises. The majority of respondents who do not own dog (29.6%) said it was due to religious reasons. The anti-rabies vaccination coverage of dogs in the houses surveyed was estimated at (35.5%). The study revealed low vaccination coverage in native breed of dogs (50.98%), in females (36.6%) and in dogs greater than 12 months of age (29.0%), therefore vaccination against rabies should be instituted regardless of sex, breed and age of dogs so as to attain the 70% vaccination coverage as prescribed by the World Health Organization. Out of 86 dogs reported to be involved in dog bite cases, 76 (88.4%) offending dogs were owned dogs and 10 (11.6%) were found to be stray dogs. Analyses of vaccination status of those dogs involved in dog bite revealed that 55.8% of dogs had been vaccinated, while 29.1% of dogs had no current anti-rabies vaccination. The number of dogs with unknown vaccination status were 15.1%. The implications of these findings are very critical in the control of rabies and other dog-borne diseases. Therefore as part of an effective rabies control programme, there should be regularvaccination campaign programmes, and mobilization of residents for more responsible dog ownership in Kaduna metropolis

STUDIES ON POPULATION DYNAMICS OF DOGS IN RELATION TO RABIES CONTROL IN KADUNA METROPOLIS, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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