LEAD AND CADMIUM CONCENTRATION IM MEAT OBTAINED FROM RUMINANTS SLAUGHTERED IN GUSAU, ZAMFARA STATE, NIGERIA AND RISK ASSESMENT FOR THEIR CONSUMPTION

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LEAD AND CADMIUM CONCENTRATION IM MEAT OBTAINED FROM RUMINANTS SLAUGHTERED IN GUSAU, ZAMFARA STATE, NIGERIA AND RISK ASSESMENT FOR THEIR CONSUMPTION

Abstract:

Contamination of food by heavy metals has made dietary intake one of the major routes of these harmful elements to human beings. This work was designed to determine the levels of lead, and cadmium concentrations in beef, mutton and camel meat and to assess the risk for their consumption in Gusau, Zamfara State Nigeria. Also a survey on public awareness of heavy metal poisoning in Gusau, was carried out. A total of 300 samples of beef, mutton and camel meat were purchased from different retail points in Gusau, transported to the Food Science Research Laboratory in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. The meat samples were dried at 160o C for two hours, crushed into fine powder, then 10 g of the fine powdered sample was weighed into porcelain crucible which was ignited in a muffle furnace at 800o C for six to eight hours and allowed to cool in desiccators, 0.1 gram weight of the ash was placed inside a conical flask, a mixture of nitric, perchloric and sulphuric acid was added and heated on sand bath, fordigestion, until a clear liquid solution was formed. The solution was filtered using Whatman 42 filter paper and the volume was made up to 25 cm3 with de-ionized water. The solutio ns were passed through for atomic absorption spectrometry analyses. The highest concentration of lead (mg/kg), was from camel meat (98.37 ±27.89 mg/kg) followed by beef (93.53± 29.17 mg/kg) and the least was mutton (71.76 ± 43.23 mg/kg).The highest concentration of cadmium (mg/kg), was from beef (21.43 ± 7.96 mg/kg) followed by camel meat of (18.30 ± 5.76 mg/kg) and the least was mutton (5.88± 1.57 mg/kg). Daily intakes (DI) were calculated based on estimates of average daily meat intake, bodyweight and concentrations of either lead or cadmium in the test meats. Therefore DI for lead show that children had a higher daily intake of lead with camel meat contributing the highest (231.19 μg) followed by beef (219.79 μg) and the least was mutton (175.81μg), whereas adults had lower daily intakes of lead with camel meat contributing the highest (96.97 μg) followed by beef at (92.19 μg), and the least was mutton at (70.73 μg). Children also had a higher daily intake of cadmium with beef contributing the highest (50.36 μg), followed by camel meat (50.36 μg), and the least being mutton (13.82 μg), whereas adults had lower daily intakes of cadmium with beef contributing the highest at (21.12 μg) followed by camel meat at (18.04 μg) and the least being mutton (6.79 μg). The estimated daily dietary intake (EDI) of lead and cadmium for children and adults in μ/kg/bw/day showed that camel meat contributed a slightly higher estimate of the combined metals for children at 274.21 μg/day above beef at 260.15 μg/day, and mutton contributing 189.69 μg/day being the lowest, whereas for adults, camel meat and beef contributed the same at 114.31 μg/day and 114.01 μg/day and the least was mutton 76.52 μg/day respectively. Hazard Risk Index (HRI) from consumption of the various meat showed that the risk for children‘s‘ consumption of lead and cadmium in beef is at 0.12 and 5, mutton at 0.12 and 1.3 and camel meat at 0.13 and 4.3 whereas the risk for adults‘ consumption of beef was at 0.05 and 2.1, mutton at 0.04 and 0.57 and camel meat at 0.05 and 1.8 respectively. The study also showed some level of awareness of lead poisoning among the respondents in Gusau with increasing awareness of the risks posed by domestic exposure to lead, particularly to children. This study has established that there are high levels of lead and cadmium concentrations in beef, mutton, and camel meat sold and consumed in Gusau, Zamfara State, Nigeria above the guideline values established by different food regulatory agencies. This is of public health significance

LEAD AND CADMIUM CONCENTRATION IM MEAT OBTAINED FROM RUMINANTS SLAUGHTERED IN GUSAU, ZAMFARA STATE, NIGERIA AND RISK ASSESMENT FOR THEIR CONSUMPTION

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