A SURVEY FOR CHICKEN INFECTIOUS ANAEMIA AND INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE IN ZARIA AND ENVIRONS, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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A SURVEY FOR CHICKEN INFECTIOUS ANAEMIA AND INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE IN ZARIA AND ENVIRONS, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

Abstract:

Chicken infectious anaemia (CIA) is a contagious viral disease of primarily young chickens characterized by severe anaemia, high mortality, co-infection with infectious bursal disease virus or other pathogens, severe immunosupression, susceptibility to other infectious agents and economic losses. Although, CIA virus (CIAV) and antibody have been detected in south west Nigeria, information on CIA in Zaria and its environs is lacking. The study was carried out to detect the presence of CIA and infectious bursal disease (IBD) viruses in chickens, to determine the seroprevalence of CIA and IBD in Zaria, and to detect possible co-infection of CIAV and IBD virus (IBDV) in chickens in Zaria and environs, Nigeria. A total of 351 chicken sera (from 93 breeders, 109 layers and 149 broilers) were collected from flocks in Zaria and tested for CIA antibodies, 346 of these sera were tested for IBD antibodies. A total of 69 bursae and 63 thymuses were collected and tested for CIA and IBD virus. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect antibodies against CIA. Agar gel immunodiffusion test was used to detect IBD antibodies in sera and IBDV antigens in thymus and bursae. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test the bursae and thymus for CIAV antigens. The seroprevalence of CIA was 58.97% (207/351), seroprevalence of IBD was 33.2% (115/346), prevalence of IBDV viruses was 23.2% (16/69), while the prevalence of CIAV antigens in the thymuses was 3.17% (2/63) and 1.45% in the bursa (1/69). Both IBD and CIA antibodies were detected in 38.3% of the bursae sampled. Only 3.4% (1/29) of flock were infected with both CIAV and IBDV. It was 7.29 times significantly (p < 0.05) more likely to detect antibodies to CIA in adult ( ≥ 19 weeks) than in young ( ≤ 6 weeks) chickens. In conclusion, CIAV (3.17%) and IBDV (23.2%) were detected in chickens in Zaria and environs, Nigeria and seroprevalence of vii CIA and IBD in chickens in Zaria were 58.97% and 33.2% respectively. It is recommended that, for subsequent research sample size of bursae and thymus should be increased in order to establish more accurately the probability of co-infection of CIAV and IBDV in Zaria and environs. Further research should be carried out to characterize the CIAV detected in Zaria. Improved biosecurity practices are recommended on poultry farms in order to prevent infection by CIA and IBDV. Breeders should be vaccinated against CIA to prevent infection which could lead to vertical transmission of CIAV and to confer maternal antibodies to their offspring.

A SURVEY FOR CHICKEN INFECTIOUS ANAEMIA AND INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE IN ZARIA AND ENVIRONS, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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