RETROSPECTIVE AND PROSPECTIVE STUDIES ON DIARRHOEA IN LAMBS AND KIDS IN A SMALL RUMINANT RESEARCH PROGRAMME IN ZARIA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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RETROSPECTIVE AND PROSPECTIVE STUDIES ON DIARRHOEA IN LAMBS AND KIDS IN A SMALL RUMINANT RESEARCH PROGRAMME IN ZARIA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

Abstract:

Retrospective and prospective studies of Yankasa lambs and Red Sokoto goat kids were evaluated for the prevalence of diarrhoea retrospectively over a ten year period and prospectively for two years in a Small Ruminant Unit of a Research Institute in Zaria. Data were collected and analysed using Pearson Test. Considering the retrospective studies; the total number of Yankasa lambs and Red Sokoto goat kids examined were 1569. Of these, the occurrence of diarrhoea in both species was 567 (36.2%). The occurrence in Yankasa lambs and Red Sokoto goat kids was 446 (38.8%) and 121 (28.9%) respectively. There was significant difference (P<0.0001) in the occurrence of diarrhoea among Yankasa lamb and Red Sokoto goat kids. The occurrence was higher in Yankasa lambs than in the Red Sokoto goat kids. Considering yearly occurrence of lambs and kids diarrhoea in the Research Institute, the occurrence was highest in 2005 (85.0%) and lowest in 2003 (10.0%) among lambs, while the occurrence among the kids was highest in 2009 (69.4%) and no case of diarrhea was reported in the years 2002 and 2004. The differences were statistically significant (P=0.0001). Considering seasonal variation, diarrhoea occured throughout the period under study in Yankasa lambs and Red Sokoto goat kids, with the highest 187 (41.9%) occurrence in Yankasa lambs and 53 (43.8%) in Red Sokoto goat kids both in the wet season while the lowest 102 (22.9%) in Yankasa lambs and 25 (20.7%) in Red Sokoto goat kids both occurred in the dry season. The sex specific rates of diarrhoea was higher in females Yankasa lambs (42.8%) than in females Red Sokoto goat kid (25.4%). Similarly, it was also higher in male Yankasa lambs (34.9%) than in the male Red Sokoto goats kid (31.9%). However, there was no significant association (P=0.2697) between sex and the occurrence of diarrhoea in lambs and kids in the Research Institute. Considering the cause of diarrhoea, diarrhoea due to unknown aetiology (35.9%) had the highest occurrence of diarrhoea in Yankasa lambs followed by coccidiosis (33.9%) while helminthosis (30.3%) being the least. Similarly, diarrhoea due to unknown aetiology (34.7%) had the highest occurrence in Red Sokoto goat kids followed by coccidiosis (33.1%) with helminthosis (32.2%) being the least (Table 4.5). There was no significant association (p>0.05) between the enteric pathogens reported and the occurrence of diarrhoea in lambs and kids in the Research Institute. The prospective study was for the period of two years (2012 and 2013). A total of 300 samples, were examined, of which 247(82.3%) were for diarrhoeic lambs and kids consisting of 160(82.1%) Yankasa lambs and 87(82.9%) Red Sokoto goat kids. There was no significant (p>0.05) association between prevalence of diarrhoea and age of lambs. These may be due to management practices. However, there was a statistically significant (p<0.05) association between prevalence of diarrhoea and sex of animal species. The study revealed that there was a significant (p<0.05) association between PCV and the prevalence of diarrhoea with the mean diarrhoeic PCV of 31.6% for goat kids and 28.3% for the lambs . There was also a statistically significant (p<0.05) association between BUN and the prevalence of diarrhea with the mean BUN of 4.8mmol/L for the goat kids and 4,9mmol/L for the lambs. Diarrhoea caused by bacteria such as Escherichia coli alone 203(82.2%), combination of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus sp 7(2.8%), protozoa such as Coccidia spp alone 25(10.1%), combination of protozoa and gastrointestinal worms like the Coccidia spp and Strongyle 11(4.45%), and combination of Coccidia spp, Strongyle and Monezia spp 1(0.4%). These could be attributed to management and environmental factors. It is recommended that good management practices should be strictly adhered to.This study revealed that the prevalence of diarrhea was higher among Yankasa lambs 1 to 4 weeks old and Red Sokoto Goat kids 1 to 3 weeks old. The high prevalence of diarrhea observed was attributed to season especially wet season.

RETROSPECTIVE AND PROSPECTIVE STUDIES ON DIARRHOEA IN LAMBS AND KIDS IN A SMALL RUMINANT RESEARCH PROGRAMME IN ZARIA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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