PREVALENCE AND CO-INFECTION OF DIROFILARIA AND WEST NILE VIRUS IN DOGS IN KADUNA AND ZARIA METROPOLIS, NIGERIA

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PREVALENCE AND CO-INFECTION OF DIROFILARIA AND WEST NILE VIRUS IN DOGS IN KADUNA AND ZARIA METROPOLIS, NIGERIA

Abstract:

Mosquito-borne diseases include diseases caused by viruses (also called arboviruses) and parasites which are transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito examples of which are West Nile virus, and filariasis. The study was aimed at determining the prevalence of dirofilaria and its co-infection with West Nile virus in dogs attending government based Veterinary clinics and at slaughters in Kaduna metropolis and Zaria. The diagnosis was based on the use of the knotts techniques and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Blood was collected from 30 animals each from 6 government based veterinary clinics and 45 each from 2 slaughter slabs in Kaduna metropolis and 90 from 1 slaughter slab in Zaria giving a total of 360 animals sampled. At each collection unit, the animals were selected using systemic random sampling. Biodata regarding each animal was collected and recorded. Blood collected from each animal was shared into two containers for parasitic and serological analyses. Blood positive for filarial parasites using the knotts technique were analyzed for West Nile virus antibodies using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ID-VET). The knowledge of dog owners about mosquito borne infections in animals and humans apart from malaria was studied via the use of questionnaire survey. The results revealed a prevalence of 1.1% (4/360) dogs positive for blood dirofilaria parasite, 30.4% (28/92) of combined positive filarial samples and randomly selected negative samples were seropositive with West Nile virus antibodies and 25% (1) out of the 4 positive filarial samples show co-infection. It was established that a vast majority of dog owners do not know that mosquitoes transmit other diseases apart from malaria and transmission can occur from animals to humans and vice versa.

PREVALENCE AND CO-INFECTION OF DIROFILARIA AND WEST NILE VIRUS IN DOGS IN KADUNA AND ZARIA METROPOLIS, NIGERIA

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