PHARMACOGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF THE LEAVES AND GALLS OF GUIERA SENEGALENSIS J.F. Gmel

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PHARMACOGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF THE LEAVES AND GALLS OF GUIERA SENEGALENSIS J.F. Gmel

Abstract:

Guiera senegalensis J.F. Gmel. (Comoretaceae) is a shrub in dry Savannah of Sudan Zone. It is also widely distributed in Northern Nigeria. The specific feature of this plant is presence of galls on the branches of its stem, An insect Acaciothrips ebneri, Karny. and a mould fungus of the Fusarium spp. were found to be associated with the galls and these may be the cause of this pathological condition (gall). A detailed microscopical study of the anatomical sections of the fresh leaf and gall as well as of their powdered forms was carried out and unique features noted. The qualitative chemical tests indicated the presence of free and combined reducing sugars, saponins with steroidal and triterpenoidal aglycones, flavonoids and alkaloids in the galls. Ellagitannins and condensed tannins were common to both the leaf and gall, and gallotannins unique to the gall only. Resins were detected in the gall. Paper and Thin layer chromatographic studies of the tannins and sugar extracts of the leaf and the gall revealed the presence catechol, phloroglucinol,tannic acid and glucose. A fairly high tannin content was estimated both in the leaves and the galls. The tannin estimated by hide powder method (hot leaching) gave 13.8% w/w dry weight and 19.2% w/w dry weight yield for the leaves and galls respectively. A systematic evaluative studies of the crude drug were carried out. The moisture content (11.3% w/v and 8.0% w/v); total ash (6.3% w/v and 4.4% w/v); acid insoluble ash values (1.7% w/v and 2.3% w/v); alcohol soluble extractive values (27/.7% w/v and 18.5% w/v) and water soluble extractive values (16.8% w/v and 18.8% w/v) were obtained for the leaf and gall respectively. The aqueous and water soluble extractives of methanol extracts of the roasted and unroasted galls exhibited some antimicrobial effects against Streptococcus pyogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia colt,while Candida-albicans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were less sensitive. The a queous and water soluble extractives of the methanol extracts of the unroasted galls were more active. These antimicrobial properties may explain the basis for the use of the galls in treatment of skin diseases and wound infections by traditional healers in Northern Nigeria. finally, the various results and data derived from this study would be useful in preparation of pharmacopoeial monograph of G. senegalensis.

PHARMACOGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF THE LEAVES AND GALLS OF GUIERA SENEGALENSIS J.F. Gmel

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