EFFECTS OF ACUTE EXPERIMENTAL TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI BRUCEI INFECTION ON SERUM PROFILES OF ENDOGENOUS ANTI-OXIDANTS IN RELATION TO TISSUE AND HAEMATOLOGICAL CHANGES IN WISTAR RATS.

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EFFECTS OF ACUTE EXPERIMENTAL TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI BRUCEI INFECTION ON SERUM PROFILES OF ENDOGENOUS ANTI-OXIDANTS IN RELATION TO TISSUE AND HAEMATOLOGICAL CHANGES IN WISTAR RATS.

Abstract:

The alterations in serum profiles of endogenous antioxidants in relation to sequential tissue and haematological changes were determined to assess the impacts of oxidative stress in Wistar rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. A total of 40 adult male rats, used for this research were acclimatized and allocated based on their mean body weight into infected and control groups, of 20 rats each. Blood was obtained from an infected donor rat at peak parasitaemia and reconstituted with physiological saline to give 1 x 106 trypanosomes/ml, 1 ml was then injected intraperitoneally to each of the rats in the infected group. On the day of infection (day 0 post-infection (pi)), before the infection of the rats with the trypanosomes, 4 rats each from the infected and control groups were sacrificed; blood was collected into plain and EDTA sample bottles; to obtain serum and for determinations of haematological parameters, respectively. Post-mortem examination was carried out while tissues samples were collected and fixed in 10 % formalin for histopathology and representative portion of the liver and kidney were also stored in phosphate buffered saline solution. Following the same modality as on day 0 pi, blood and tissue samples collection were repeated on days 3, 5 and 7 pi. The sera were assayed for activities of super oxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), serum biochemicals and enzymes and the liver and kidney homogenate were assayed for reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations. The pre-patent period was 3.75 ± 0.11 days and the levels of parasitaemia increased throughout the study. Clinical manifestations were anorexia, pale ocular mucous membrane, polyuria, respiratory distress, unthriftiness, raised hair coat, and weight loss. There was a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the packed cell volume (PCV) and total white blood cell count (TWBC), 33.00 ± 2.89 % and 6.93 ± 0.48 x109/L, respectively on day 7 pi when compared to the control and pre- vii infection values. Serum SOD activity had a significant (p < 0.05) negative correlation (г = -0.9) with the levels of parasitaemia in the T. b. brucei-infected rats. All the other markers of antioxidation; serum GPx activity and organ (liver and kidney) GSH concentrations presented a decrease with increase in the levels of parasitaemia, although not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Serum GPx activity had a significant (p < 0.05) positive correlations with liver (г = 0.96) and kidney (г = 0.93) GSH concentrations, respectively. All the measured serum biochemicals and enzymes had a significant (p < 0.05) negative correlation with serum GPx activity; aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (г = -0.99), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (г = -0.97), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (г = -0.96) and urea (г = -0.99) except creatinine. The activity of AST were significantly (p < 0.05) higher on days 5 and 7 (101.70 and 104.60 U/L, respectively) pi while ALT activity (57.20 ± 3.26 U/L) and concentrations of urea (9.32 ± 0.98 mmol/L) and creatinine (111.10 ± 6.09 μmol/L) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher on day 7 pi. Hepatic and renal lesions observed were mainly congestion, mononuclear cells infiltrations and erythrophagocytosis which were most severe on day 7 pi. There were also degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes and epithelial cells of the renal tubules. In conclusion, infection of rats with T. b. brucei caused a decrease in the serum antioxidant enzymes activities proportional to the level of parasitaemia and duration of the infection is believed to be responsible for sequential tissue damage.

EFFECTS OF ACUTE EXPERIMENTAL TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI BRUCEI INFECTION ON SERUM PROFILES OF ENDOGENOUS ANTI-OXIDANTS IN RELATION TO TISSUE AND HAEMATOLOGICAL CHANGES IN WISTAR RATS.

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