PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND ANALGESIC STUDIES OFDESMODIUM VELUTINUM (P.BEAUV.) DC.(PAPILIONACEAE).

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PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND ANALGESIC STUDIES OFDESMODIUM VELUTINUM (P.BEAUV.) DC.(PAPILIONACEAE).

Abstract:

Pain is an unpleasant sensation often associated with disease and/ or injury. The people in Lokoja use traditional medicine especially medicinal plants in the treatment and management of pain.The use of orthodox medicine for example, pentazocine, in managing pain is associated with some problems such as dizziness, stomach upset, impaired breathing and mental function. Orthodox medicine is more expensive, less accessible by local people and less acceptable to the body in contrast to traditional medicine. The broad aim of this research is to evaluate traditional pain management or treatment in Lokoja.An ethnomedical survey on medicinal plants/recipes used in pain management was conducted between March and August, 2012 in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria. Information on indigenous medicinal plant wealth of the people was obtained using a scientifically structured questionnaire with key people who are recognized in alternative medicine. The investigation yielded a total of 23 medicinal plant species represented by 23 genera from 17 families cited by 52 informants. The vernacular names of the plants were recorded in Igala, Ebira and Okun (the major local languages in Lokoja). From the ethnomedical survey result,ASTERACEAE is most represented (17%),most of the plants are wild (65%) and shrub has the largest representation (39%). The mode of administration (mostly oral or topical) and dosage-regimen were also reported. Out of the 23 surveyed plants, 5 which are more frequently used traditionally as analgesic agents by the people and have minimal scientific information were subjected to analgesic activity test out of whichone of the most potent and has the least scientific information (Desmodium velutinum)(P. Beauv.) DC. (PAPILIONACEAE) was selected for pharmacognostic studies. The LD50 was greater than 3000mg/kg. The analgesic activity test in animal models showed that the extract at dose of a 100mg/kg exhibited 45.32% inhibition, which is comparable to the standard drug (pentazocine) with 49.07% at 20mg/kg. These findings help to explain the analgesic property of D. velutinum commonly used in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria for pain management.Macroscopy shows that the leaf has entire margin, symmetrical base, blunt apex, and hairy lower and upper epidermis. Microscopy indicates the presence of unicellular non glandular trichomes. The thin layer chromatography(TLC) of the leaf powder revealed the presence of tannins, steroids, flavonoids and terpenes.

PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND ANALGESIC STUDIES OFDESMODIUM VELUTINUM (P.BEAUV.) DC.(PAPILIONACEAE).

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