PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES AND THE EFFECTS OF CHLOROPHYLLUM MOLYBDITES (MEYER:F.) MASSES (AGARICACEAE) ON ISOLATED RABBIT JEJUNUM AND GUINEA PIG ILEUM

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PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES AND THE EFFECTS OF CHLOROPHYLLUM MOLYBDITES (MEYER:F.) MASSES (AGARICACEAE) ON ISOLATED RABBIT JEJUNUM AND GUINEA PIG ILEUM

ABSTRACT

Mushroom poisoning by Chlorophyllum molybdites /Meyer:Fr (Agaricaceae) is a serious problem that has caused a lot of death due to improper identification. C. molybdites found in Zaria Nigeria was investigated to identify the morphological and microscopic features, the secondary metabolites present, the toxicxiy in rats and mice, and also to investigate the effect of the methanolic extract on rabbit and guinea pig jejunum . The external morphology of the pileus showed a whitish domed shaped pileus (brittle texture and the surface bumpy at the centre) with diameter of 5 – 12 cm and a whitish flesh of 1 – 3 cm thick and light brownish patches. Light brownish patches were observed on the scaly pileus with the edges showing radiating lines that follow the lines of the gills. The surface is bumpy and the flesh approximately 1.3 cm thick with a brittle texture. The lamellae was greenish in colour and was at the underside of the cap like pages in a book. It was closely packed on the inside of the cap and had thickness of approximately 1cm from the pileus to the edge the lamellae. The stipe is 1 – 2 cm thick, whitish greyish brown in colour and slightly curved at the base. It has a brittle texture and a smooth surface. The spores on the lamellae were fine greenish powder with greenish colour which changes to brown on storage. The spore print had a diameter of 6.8 – 12.3 cm. The spores of C. molybdites was amyloid. The physical constants revealed a moderate total ash value of 4.0% , acid insoluble ash of 0.43%, water soluble and alcohol soluble extractive values were 10.34% and 7.15% respectively. The TLC was done with different solvent system; n-butanol: acetic acid: water in ratio, (4:1:5), Hexane : Ethylacetate in the ration (9:1), Chloroform : Ethylacetate in the ration (2:3) and Chloroform : Ethylacetate : methanol : water (8:15:4:1) chromatograph reveals 5 spots with the solvent system n-butanol: acetic acid: H2O (4:1:5) vii with Ethylacetate : methanol : water (8:15:4:1) and n-butanol: acetic acid: water (4:5:1) being the best solvent system given a total of 5 spots each when sprayed with 10% sulphuric acid and Dragendorff reagent. With Ninhydrine reagent, it showed two spots (nbutanol: acetic acid:Water (4:5:1)). The TLC indicates the presence of highly polar constituents. The methanolic extract of Cholrophyllym molybdite is moderately toxic with LD50 of 288.53mg/kg and 471mg/kg in rats and mice respectively. The extract also possess smooth muscle contractile effect on the intestinal smooth muscle on both rabbit jujenum and guinea pig ilium mediated via both muscarinic and histaminergic mechanisms. The findings from this investigation are useful in preparation of the monograph of this macrofungi.

PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES AND THE EFFECTS OF CHLOROPHYLLUM MOLYBDITES (MEYER:F.) MASSES (AGARICACEAE) ON ISOLATED RABBIT JEJUNUM AND GUINEA PIG ILEUM

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