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Most service organization in Nigeria, in recent years are facing the challenges of labour turn over due to lack of job training of their employees. More so, most service organization keep downsizing their employees and recruiting new ones as a result of changes in their services and work processes driven by technological trends and competitive environment. Therefore, it is logical for employees to keep changing their methodologies, thus giving room for continuous training and development. The objective of this study was to examine whether employees’ training and development enhances work efficiency in the service organization and aimed at finding out the adequacy of training and development programme provided to the staff of Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) in Zaria. Primary data were used for the study, which were generated through the use of questionnaires. The study is a descriptive research method and adopted the system theory. To guide the study, three research questions and hypotheses were posed. The study took a sample of 154 respondents from a population of 250 from the total population of staff in the Power Holding Company of Nigeria(PHCN) Zaria used as case study. Simple random technique was used to select the respondents. The statistical instruments used in testing the validity of the hypotheses were analyzed using chi-square. Major findings indicated that there is a positive correlation among all the variables. Result of model summary shows that the independent variables account for 39.1% of the variation in organizational performance. The study also reveals that inadequate skilled personnel, equipment and gross corruption especially on the part of health workers gravely affect the performance of the PHCN.The study therefore concluded that for training and development to have significant impact on organizational performance, employees need to be motivated during training programs. It wasrecommended that organization should introduce reward system for outstanding performance so as to motivate employees to always put in their best during each training session. And organization should be effective in integration of resources, physically and human will to yield high output or performance both internally and externally.


        TABLE OF CONTENT      
Title page   i
Declaration ii
Certification iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgement v
Abstract   vii
Table of Content – viii
Abbreviation – xi
CHAPTER ONE: Introduction              
1.1 Background to the Study – 1
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem 4
1.3 Research Questions 5
1.4 Objectives of the Study – 5
1.5 Statement of Hypotheses 6
1.6 Significance of the Study 6
1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study- 7
1.8 Definition of Concepts 8
CHAPTERTWO: Literature Review and Theoretical Framework    
2.1 Introduction 10
2.2 Literature Review 10
2.2.1 Human Resource Training and Development 14




2.2.2 Employee Performance 22
2.2.3 Effect of Training on Performance 24
2.2.4 The other factor affecting employee performance – 26
2.3 Theoretical Framework – 30
CHAPTER THREE: Research Methodology          
3.1   Introduction 34
3.2 Research Design – 34
3.3 Population of the Study 35
3.4 Sample Size and Sampling Techniques- 35
3.5 Sources of Data 39
3.6 Methods of Data Presentation and Analysis – 39


CHAPTER FOUR: An Overview of the Power Holding Company of Nigeria and


Organisational Structure


4.1 Introduction 43
4.2 Objectives of PHCN 45
4.3 PHCN Policy 46
4.4 Structure of Electric Power Sector 48
4.4.1 Main Indicators 50
4.4.2 Energy Related Ratios 52
4.4.3 Local Distribution Companies 53
4.4.4 Payment of bills 53
4.5 Privatization of PHCN – 54


4.5.1 Constraints of PHCN – 55
CHAPTER FIVE: Data Presentation and Analysis        
5.1 Introduction 56
5.1.1 BioData of Respondents 57
5.2 Test of Hypotheses – 70
5.3 Major Findings 74
CHAPTER SIX: Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendations    
6.1 Summary 77
6.2 Conclusion 78
6.3 Recommendations – 79
Bibliography                 81
Questionnaires                 86
Appendix                 87




PHCN=                                                             Power Holding Company of Nigeria






1.1         Background to the Study


In a developing country like Nigeria, training and development of manpower resources is highly needed in virtually all business organizations for its effectiveness. It is hard for any business organization to exist without adequate manpower hence it is an indispensable tool for any business organization. For Managers to perform their functions effectively there must be well designed training and development programs to enable them enhance their performance. These training programmes may range from on-the-job training scheme aimed at exposing managers to new techniques adopted in modern office environments.

Manpower training and development must be based on a need analysis derived from a comparison of “actual performance’’ and behavior with “required performance’’ and behavior. Manpower training and development is one of the major ways organization invests in the workforce for greater return today and even in the foreseeable future.


Organizations are facing increased competition due to globalization, changes in technology, political and economic environments (Evans, Pucik & Barsoux 2002, 32) and therefore prompting these organizations to train their employees as one of the ways to prepare them to adjust to the increases above and thus enhance their performance. It is important to not ignore the prevailing evidence on growth of knowledge in the business corporate world in the last decade. This growth has not only been brought about by improvements in technology nor a combination of factors of production but increased efforts towards development of organizational human resources.

It is, therefore, in every organizations responsibility to enhance the job performance of the employees and certainly implementation of training and development is one of the major steps that most companies need to achieve this. As is evident that employees are a crucial resource, it is important to optimize the contribution of employees to the company aims and goals as a means of sustaining effective performance. This therefore calls for managers to ensure an adequate supply of staff that is technically and socially competent and capable of career development into specialist departments or management positions (Afshan, Sobia, Kamran & Nasir 2012, 646).


The question that may arise in many instances is why human resources are important. Bearing in mind that human resources are the intellectual property of the firm, employees prove to be a good source of gaining competitive advantage (Houger 2006), and training is the only way of developing organizational intellectual property through building employees competencies.

In order to succeed. Organizations have to obtain and utilize human resources effectively. Organizations, therefore, need to design its human resource management in ways that fit into the organization’s structure as this it will make the organizations achieve their goals and objectives. Moreover, it is also important for organizations to assist their workforce in obtaining the necessary skills needed and, increase commitment. The management of human resources in Nigeria in general and Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) in particular is rather challenging as most organizations have difficulties finding proper human resources.

This may partly be a result of the different kinds of problems, for example, political instability, corruption, bureaucracy, poor infrastructure, low levels of education and purchasing power, diseases and famine known to prevail in the African business context (Kamoche 2002, 994 – 995).

Training as the crucial area of human management, is the fastest growing segment of personnel activities. Training which is referred to as a course of diet and exercise for developing the employees’ affective, cognitive and psychomotor skills assist the organizations to have a crucial method of developing the employee towards enhancing his productivity. At times, some companies go beyond establishing their own schools for training and retraining their staff at no cost expense to the trainee.

The main aim of training and development programmes in service organizations is to enable employee’s increase their productivity, productivity on the other hand is the end product of training and development as well as a measure of the output of the result from a given input. Managers plays a very vital role in the service organization in the realization of the organizational goal, he therefore needs to be constantly exposed to regular training programmes to increase his skills to enable him adapt to technologically world of business.

The primary task of Power Holding Company of Nigeria is to prepare her staff for advancement in their fields and is to support and promote manpower development and training programmes that are relevant to employee’s career development, improve employees morale and competitive on the job.


1.2         Statement of the Problem

This research as it deals with the training and development of employees in service organizations is intended to find out the efficiency and effectiveness of training and development programme in service organization with reference to Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) Zaria zone. Since Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) is an organization governing the use of electricity in Nigeria serves as a source of electricity supply, distribution and maintenance round the Nation Most of the employers have reported the inefficiency of some staff in business organization in Nigeria, though this efficiency could be attributed to their non possession of the requisite skills and competencies. The adverse effect of (Iwuoha, 2009) nepotism, god fatherism and favoritism during recruitment exercise has effects on productivity. The resultant effect of this is that such employees employed without due employment procedures find it extremely difficult to cope with the ever improving technologically business environment, the problem of the study put in a question form is, what type of training should the employees be exposed to enable them move with the demands of the ever-changing business world?


1.3         Research Questions


The following research questions guided the study


  1. What type of training programmes is available to employees in selected service organization in Zaria?


  1. How often is development programmes mounted for employees in selected service organization in Zaria?


  • What are the impacts of training and development programmes on the productivity


of the employees in service organization?


1.4         Objectives of the study


The main objective of this is to find out the adequacy of training and development programme provided to the employees in selected service organization in Zaria, Kaduna State of Nigeria. Specifically, the study intends to:


  1. Identify the type of training schemes available to the employees in selected service organizations in Zaria.


  1. Ascertain how often the development programmes are mounted for employees in this service organization.


  • Determine the impact of training and development programmes on the employee’s performance in the selected service organization.


1.5         Statement of Hypotheses


The under listed null hypotheses were tested in this study at 0.05 level of significance.


H01: There is no significance difference between the mean ratings of senior and junior employers regarding the type of training schemes available to employees in service organization in Zaria.


H02: There is no significance difference between the mean ratings of experience and inexperience employers in respect of how often the development programmes are mounted for employees in selected service organization in Zaria.


H03: There is no significance difference between the mean ratings of senior and junior employers as to the impact of training and development programmes on the performance of employees in the service organization.

1.6         Significance of the Study

In Nigeria today, the desire of rapid economic development and technological advancement make this study a subject of significance. To this end, various debates, researches, Conferences and Seminars have been conducted by workers.

This study will be of invaluable assistance to Management Development Institutes, employers of labour, the government, policy makers, politician, administrators, human resources personnel, researchers, students and future administrative leaders.

It is expected that the study will inform the heads of organizations that to increase workers performance, there is the need to have and retain well trained and motivated employees. It is also to help develop and maintain a quality work life, which will provide an opportunity for employee’s ‟ job satisfaction and self- actualization”.

Nonetheless, it will help managers of various organizations to generate ideas and solution to problems based on the best way to run training in their organization in order to achieve desired goals and objectives. Finally, the study will aid management to introduce modern schemes for training and development; to be able to meet the challenges of change in the future.

1.7         Scope and Limitation of the Study

The study centers on the staff of Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) Zaria who have at one time or the other been a part of the training conducted by the PHCN training school. This study is limited to PHCN Zaria because; it cannot cover all the national districts across Nigeria. The scope of this study covers the period of 2007 – 2011

It is a national district with a considerable staff strength that could facilitate adequate reliability and validity of the study. Moreover, accessibility and/or availability of data to the researcher coupled with time and financial constraints can limit the scope.


1.8         Definition of Concepts


Effects were made at defining the following terminologies used in this study to avoid ambiguity and elicit proper understanding.

Human resource management: This is the way organizations manage their staff and help them to develop (McCourt & Eldridge 2003, 2) in order to be able to execute organizations’ missions and goals successfully.

Human resource development: This is the integration of individual, career and organization development roles in order to achieve maximum productivity, quality, opportunity and fulfillment of organizations members as they work to accomplish the goals of the organization (Pace, Smith & Mills 1991, 6).

Training: This is a type of activity which is planned, systematic and it results in enhanced level of skill, knowledge and competency that are necessary to perform work effectively (Gordon 1992).

Development: This is a broad ongoing multi-faceted set of activities (training activities among them) aimed at bringing someone or an organization up to another threshold of performance, often to perform some job or a new role in the future (McNamara 2008).

Manpower: Total supply of personnel available or engaged for a specific job or task (Business Dictionary)

Planning: This is an act of formulating a program for a definite course of action (Financial Dictionary)

Employee performance: This is defined as the outcome or contribution of employees to make them attain goals (Herbert, John & Lee 2000) while performance may be used to define what an organization has accomplished with respect to the process, results, relevance and success Uganda National Development Program (1995). Afshan et al. (2012) define performance as the achievement of specific tasks measured against predetermined or identified standards of accuracy, completeness, cost and speed. Employee performance can be manifested in improvement in production, easiness in using the new technology, highly motivated workers.





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