INFLUENCE OF TEACHERS’ WELFARE ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ISHIELU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE
This study focus on influence of teachers’ welfare on students academic performance in some selected secondary schools in Ishielu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. Four purpose and research questions guided the study. The population of the study is made up of 300 teachers drawn across the six (6) schools selected for the study. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the number of schools used for the research, while 300 teachers were used as the sample size due to its researchable size. At the same time instrument used for the data collection was questionnaire, which contains 28 items. The response on the questionnaire item were used to answer the research questions and mean scores of ratings of the item were computed and used as a guide in analyzing the data. The findings of the study shows that teachers welfare influence student academic performance to a high extent. The educational implications and recommendations which were based on the findings were made and consequently limitations and suggestions for further study were clearly highlighted; Summary and conclusion were also stated
TABLE OF CONTENTS vii
LIST OF THE TABLES ix
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 5
Purpose of the Study 7
Significance of the Study 8
Scope of the Study 9
Research Questions 9
CHAPTER TWO:REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 11
Concept of Welfare 11
Indicators of Welfare 12
Welfare Strategies in Motivating Teachers 13
How Salary and Working Condition Affect Students Performance 16
Impact of Workshop, Seminar and Conference Programmes 21
Impact of Promotion as at When Due 22
Teachers role in the Pursuance of Quality and Standard Education 22
Theoretical Framework 23
Review of Related Empirical Studies 25
Summary of the Reviewed Literature 28
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 30
Design of the Study 30
Area of the Study 30
The Population of Study 31
Sample and Sampling Techniques 31
Instrument for Data Collection 31
Validation of the Instrument 32
Methods of Data Collection 33
Method of Data Analysis 33
CHAPTER FOUR:RESULTS 34
Summary of the Findings 41
CHAPTERFIVE:DISCUSSION OF FINDING, SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION 42
Discussion of the Findings 42
Summary of the Study 44
Educational Implications of the Study 48
Limitations of the Study 48
Suggestion for Further studies 49
Table 1: Mean Responds on the Regular Payment of Teachers Salary on Students Academic Performance in Ishielu Local Government Area 34
Table 2: Mean Response on the Approval of Seminar, Conference and Workshop for the Teaching, Influence the Teaching and Learning Process 35
Table 3: Mean response on regular promotion of teachers as at when due on student academic performance 36
Table 4: Mean Response on the Strategies for improving Teachers Welfare 37
Table 5: Chi-square Analysis in the Mean Response of Schools in Urban and Rural Areas on Influence of Regular Payment of Teachers Salary on Students Academic Performance 38
Table 6: Shows Chi-Square Analysis on the differences in the Mean Responses of Private and Public Schools on the Influence of Regular Promotion of Teachers as at when due on Students Academic Performance 39
Table 7: Shows the Chi-Square Analysis on the difference in the Mean Responds of Highly Educated and under Educated Teachers on Influence of Academic Workshop, Seminar and Conference Program on Student Academic Performance 40
Education has been recognized as the fundamental basis on which any nation could function effectively. Its socio-political and economic depends solely on the qualitative education given to her citizen. Any nation that wants to be recognized as a developed country must build its human resource firmly. Hence, a country is said to be developed if the majority of her populace is highly educated Therefore, those that impact the needed knowledge or those that build or mould the character should be attainted and motivated adequately, knowing that their welfare is the key to performance and improvement. Hence, it is believed that a motivated teacher always complete the tasks set for him, even when such task is difficult or seen uninteresting. Teachers are a central actor in the learning process that takes place in schools, and teachers are the power tools for improving quality education through effective classroom practices in secondary schools (Davison, 2011). Attitudes and effectiveness can vary depending on the incentives they face. Pay structure is potentially an incentive-tool in the hands of the education policy maker, and merit pay proposals have important recently been discussed in several countries and applied in some. However, the issue of whether linking teachers pay to student performance is an effective means of improving that performance has been contentious in educational debates. According to Geeta and Francis (2010) that causality is established as running from higher wage to improved student achievement, the relationship is open to alternative interpretations. One is that a positive impact from wages onto achievement reflects the fact that higher wages likely attract better quality people into the pool for applicants for teaching jobs. A second interpretation is that higher pay raises achievement by raising the effort of existing teachers. In terms of the efficiency wage theory, better paid teachers are likely to work harder in order to increase the chance of retaining their more valuable jobs. The paper will test these alternative explanations of the wage effect on student achievement. According to Patrick and Jane (2013), Teacher incentive is the idea that has been received with divergent views. The proponents of teacher incentive programmes believe that teacher incentives are meant to boost teacher motivation and effectiveness resulting in high productivity and increased pupil performance. On the other hand, opponents of the idea argue that monetary incentives, especially of small amounts, tend to crowed out intrinsic motivation and lead to inferior outcomes (Jacob, 2011). One hypothesis, as explained by Hanushek (2010), maintains that rewarding teachers for students achievement gains will improve student achievement by attracting more effective teachers to the field or improving the effectiveness of existing teachers. According to brain (2011) Education is one of the most important avenues through which governments can address concerns of economic growth and equity. Human capital plays a substantial role in the economic growth of nations (Topel 2012) and, in the past two decades, skill biased technical change has increased the returns to schooling, exacerbating wage inequality between the most and least educated members of our society (Katz and Murphy 2010). At the same time, cognitive ability has become an increasingly important determinant of labor market success in this country.
Aware of the importance of education, economists have spent considerable effort examining what factors affect academic achievement. There is a large literature on the importance of financial resources in determining educational outcomes.’ However, researchers have paid considerably less attention to remedial programs designed to improve the performance of low achieving students, including summer school and grade retention (Eide and Showalter, 2011).
In Nigeria, Mathematics is a compulsory subject up to secondary school level. During the last couple of years, performance in Mathematics in National examination has dropped significantly and this has been a major concern for the society. The West Africa Examination Council has continued to raise concerns over the poor performance in Senior Secondary Certificate Examination. Many teachers have left teaching in public schools for greener pastures in better paying private schools as a result of lack of motivation and incentives needed. Students in most public schools are disadvantaged in that the classes are overcrowded and they do not have adequate learning facilities. In some instances, they lack adequate textbooks and laboratory equipments. This is in sharp contrast to private schools where the numbers of students are few as there are adequate facilities and the teachers are willing to go an extra mile to ensure that the students perform well in examination but the willingness to go an extra mile to ensure good students performance may be frustrated when there is no motivation and encouragement to the side of the teachers. Although, it is believed that the reward for the teachers is in heaven, but there is no doubt about the fact that if the limited or no motivation for the teachers in terms of incentives and innovation it may drastically reduce their morale which may in turn have a negative impact on students performance. The few teachers on the government payroll are poorly remunerated as a result most of them take up part time employment or private business enterprise in order to make ends means. This greatly reduces their commitment to the teaching (which demands for sacrifice). However, lack of motivations for the teachers may influence their dedication to teaching work. Poor performance of student in mathematics may also be as a result of teachers not being dedicated to their duties which may in turn have effects on students academic goal setting which apace affect individual who has set lower goals for themselves(Aremu, Ayotola, 2000). The role of teachers in national building and natural development cannot be washed away -Anibeze- Vanguard Newspapper 2012 page 12 gives priority to teachers welfare.
Welfare can be seen as the availability of recourses and presence of conditions required for reasonable, comfortable, healthy and secure living for teachers which include good working condition, secured environment for academic business, regular promotion, in-services training, regular payment of salary and among other work incentive that aid the teachers performance standard.
One of the important factors in realizing educational aims and objectives in students academic performance is the role of the teachers welfare within the educational set up. The performance of the student towards achieving educational goals is said to be very important in most society today. The negative performance of student towards an educational aims and objectives could be associated to the low attention on teachers welfare. It is generally believed that children from high and middle socio-economic status parent are better exposed to a learning environment at home because of provision and availability for extra learning facilities and attended a private school while children from a very low socio-economic status family will attend a public school and may not have any opportunity to expose to a better learning environment where teachers are highly motivated. Teachers have the biggest impact on the success and flaws of students
academic performance because their teaching motivations are instrumental in helping them learn and one approach is likely to produce different results from another. Teachers motivation to undertake a task depends on their expected reward. Efficient teaching and moral will take place when there is strong motivation in terms of wages and innovation from both employers, also the students
performance sometimes may serve as a motivation for the teachers in other to perform efficient in the subject. This motivation may be aroused by either extrinsic or intrinsic stimuli both of which are important in directing and regulating the learners behaviour towards attainment of the desired goals(Jacob,2001). Teachers must therefore be motivated through various ways which may include the organization of seminars and workshops, upgrading test, performance appraisal, timely payment of salary and wage, providing the required physical facilities like laboratories and verbal encouragements for student etc. This would go a long way in motivating the teachers which will in turn improving the students performance(Topel,2010). These results have generated increased interest in the study of mechanisms that may raise achievement through teachers, including increasing teacher training, improving teachers’ pay or strengthening teacher incentives (Lazear 2011]. In fact, teacher incentives, either individual or collective, may improve student achievement if they succeed in aligning the public or even social goals with the goals of the teachers.
The main purpose of this study is to examine the impact of teachers welfare on students academic Performance in some selected secondary schools in Ishielu Local Government Area of Ebonyi states. Specifically the study is determine to;
- Investigate the influence of regular payment of teachers salary on students academic performance in some selected secondary schools in Ishielu Local Government Area.
- Find out the influence of regular promotion of teachers as at when due on students academic Performance in some selected secondary schools in Ishielu Local Government Area.
- Examine the influence of academic workshop, seminar and conference program on teachers effective teaching and learning on students academic performance in some selected secondary schools in Ishielu Local Government Area
- Fine out the strategies for improving on teachers welfare on students academic performance in some selected secondary schools in Ishielu Local Government Area.
It is clear that the structure, nature and composition of academic performance in every school is functionally dependent on the welfare of the teachers. However, the teachers are often limited by many factors in preparing the students for effective teaching and learning development. The findings of this study will be of great importance to the government, the curriculum planners, school administrators, the students and the entire society.
To the government, the findings of this study will guide the Government on decision making and the need to make provision for teachers welfare
To the curriculum planners the findings and recommendations of the study will guide the curriculum planners on the need to incorporate the welfare of the teachers in consideration of the their different need and background. That could lay a proper foundation of academic performance on students. The school administrators will also fine the recommendations of this study in understanding reasons behinds the poor performance of the students as a result of negligence on teachers welfare
To the entire society, the findings and recommendations of this study will be of a great benefit to anybody who has interest in knowing the problems and strategies of impact of teachers welfare on students academic performance
This study focused on the school factors necessary for improving students academic performance in Ishielu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. The study also focuses on the effect of regular payment of teachers salary on students academic performance, influence of regular promotion of teachers as at when due. It also sought to identify the joint effects of those factors necessary for improving students academic performance and the need for improving on teachers welfare.
This study is delimited to identify those factors necessary for improving on students academic performance in some selected secondary schools in Ishielu Local Government Area of Ebonyi state.
- How does regular payment of teachers salary influence the students academic performance in some selected secondary schools in Ishielu Local Government Area
- How does the approval of seminar, conference and workshop for the teachers, influence the teaching and learning process in some selected secondary schools in Ishielu Local Government Area
- How does constant promotion of teachers influence the students academic performance in some selected secondary schools in Ishielu Local Government Area
- How does the strategies for improving on teachers welfare influence students academic performance in some selected secondary schools in Ishielu Local Government Area.
In this study, three null hypotheses were tested for significance level at 0.05 margin of error.
Ho1: There is no significant difference in the mean response of schools in urban and rural areas on regular payment of teachers salary on students academic performance
Ho2: There is no significant difference in the mean response of private and public schools on the impact of regular promotion of teachers as at when due on students academic performance
Ho3: There is no significant difference in the mean responds of Literate and illiterate teachers on how seminar and conference program affects academic performance.
INFLUENCE OF TEACHERS’ WELFARE ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ISHIELU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE