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                                                              CHAPTER ONE



Economics education is one of the occupational areas that are richly provided by vocational and technical education in Nigeria. Economics education refers to a programme of instruction that offers various skills in Economics, marketing and Office Technology and Management (OTM). Major topics include: office practice, book keeping, economics mathematics, economics communication, secretarial duties, word processing, advertising (Ajisafe, Bolarinwa & Edeh 2015). Edokpolor and Egbri (2017) had stipulated that the actual goals of economics education shall be to: 1. Prepare students for specific career in office occupations; 2. Equip students with the requisite skills for job creation and entrepreneurship; and 3. Expose students with knowledge about economics, including a good blend of computer technology, which incorporates Information and Communication Technology (ICT). They further explained that the first two goals involve education ‘for’ economics, which is aimed at equipping recipients with the requisite attributes (knowledge, skills, competencies, and attitudes) to become gainfully employed in the world of work, whereas the later addresses education ‘about’ economics, which is aimed at providing a sound basis for further studies at the graduate and post-graduate levels. 3 Some contemporary thinkers in education and training conceive of economics education as a major contributor to human resource, entrepreneurial and national development. Despite these laudable roles, available indications have shown that Nigeria have been handling economics education with levity (Ekpenyong, 1992; Ekpenyong & Nwabuisi, 2003; Oladunjoye, 2016; Edokpolor & Egbri, 2017). Edokpolor and Egbri (2017) added that this situation has consequently deprived economics education from adequate provision of funds, qualified manpower, modern facilities, quality curriculum, and proper attention. Although, economics education have attracted bulk of research within these areas (Nwodoh, n.d; Ohiwerei, 2006; Nino, 2010; khan, Shah, & Azam, 2011; Shalini & Ullash, 2012; Ojimba, 2012; Ugwuogo, 2013) leaving a gap in literature pertaining to empirical support. Also, it remain unclear how the possibilities of overcoming the issues and challenges of economics education would help in promoting national development. However, adequate optimization of resources for the effective delivery of economics education in Nigeria is receiving a growing attention (Agbo, 2012; Ekpenyong & Edokpolor, 2015a; Edokpolor, Edokpolor & Olupajimo, 2016; Edokpolor & Imafidon, 2017; Edokpolor & Oduma, 2017). This is because vocational education in general has been considered as a viable programme that helps to promote sustainable economic growth and development (Cantor, 1985; Ul-Haq & Haq, 1998; Tilak, 2002; Asian Development Bank, 2004; Agrawal, 2013). It is believed that for any nation to help 4 in promoting sustainable economic growth or development, effort shall be made to invest sufficient amount of financial resources on economics education programme. Generally, inadequate provision of financial resources has been identified as greatest challenge facing education in Nigeria (Nwadiani & Omoike, 2006; Asiyai, 2015), especially vocational and technical education sector because of its capitalintensive nature (Adeyanju, Adekunle, Osifila, 2007), of which economics education programme is a major component. By virtue of this nature, every item within the economics education instructional environment is subjected to adequate optimization of financial resources. However, in view of the contending demands for financial resources by various sectors of the Nigerian economy, economics education have been finding it difficult to employ manpower in terms of quality and quantity, develop or renew curriculum, and offer a wide-range of modern infrastructure and facilities, such as the state-of-the-art lecture halls, workshops, studios, libraries, entrepreneurial research centers, and Information Technology (IT) services. The existence of all these identified issues and challenges are mere pointer to the fact that economics education programe is currently delivered theoretically, and as such not capable of equipping recipients with the requisite attributes (knowledge, skills, and attitudes) for gainful employment and further education. Commenting on this unpleasant situation, Obunadike (2015) argued that the practical courses that are 5 supposed to expose individual students to real-practical training in order to strike a balance with or match the theory learnt in the classroom have become a myriad. To enhance an effective teaching and learning of Economics Education, teachers should apply the desirable methodology in teaching Economics Education especially the use of instructional materials, just as Ezeugwu (2009) noted that no subject area which does not make use of instructional materials. These materials enhance learning concepts and events in less time than mere verbalization by involving all the senses. Obanya (1989) view instructional materials as  a didactic materials – things which is supposed to make teaching and learning possible.

The role of instructional materials and its management towards the effective implementation of Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme in Basic (primary) schools in Nigeria is indispensable. Thus, instructional materials provide concrete and realistic experiences that make learners develop faster understanding of the concepts to be learned. Instructional materials are those items which the teacher uses to make his teaching and illustrations real and enjoyable. They refer to the totality of materials, devices and real life objects, improvised or look – alike materials employed in teaching and learning to facilitate the instructional process. Instructional materials are scattered everywhere even in our homes. It falls under three major categories. They are:

 – Audio- Visual Material: These categories of instructional materials make use of both sight and hearing senses. The audio-visual materials produce sound and motion. Examples are: televisions, videos, overhead projectors, computers slides and film strip projectors with sound accompaniment and such like.

 – Audio materials: These are the second category of the instructional materials. The audio materials stimulate the senses of hearing only in teaching and learning. Examples include, radios, cassette/tape recorders and language laboratory.

 – Visual materials: This is the third and largest category of the instructional materials that largely appeal to senses of touch and sight. These include; models, charts, maps, pictures, real objects, flannel boards, posters, bulletin-boards, chalk boards and such like. The effectiveness of any of these instructional materials depend largely on a number of factors such as relevance to the topic, appropriateness of introduction and the teachers‟ resourcefulness in using them to accomplish his/her instructional objectives among learners. Instructional materials bridge the gap between the teacher and the learner. It reduces the chalk-talk syndrome that involves only the learner’s sense of hearing which makes him loose interest after sometime. However, utilization of instructional material during instructional process is necessary because primary school pupils learn more by direct involvement with concrete materials than through abstraction. This calls for adequate provision, availability as well as management of instructional materials at this level of educational system. Instructional materials ensure effectiveness in teaching and learning since the learner not only hears but also see and does. The effective implementation of UBE programme required proper management of instructional materials by the school administrator and teachers in primary schools so as to enhance teaching and learning process. It entails developing positive attitude towards the use of these materials in the classroom for illustration and demonstration of concepts.

Instructional materials are the key for good implementation of the Universal Basic Education Programme. Instructional materials help to present ideas, facts and information. It can arouse the enthusiasm of learners, teach concepts and principles, impress pictures and images vividly in the minds and memory of learners and also help in transfer of learning. The negligence of these instructional materials during learning process may cause more harm than good to the future of learners. It is important to note that any established school curriculum calls for ways or means of implementing it in order to reach the various levels because no discussion of curriculum is complete without suggestion about methods and means of implementation. Moreover, educational system especially at primary level faces some problems which range from high rate of illiteracy, school dropout, poor teaching and learning environments, lack of educational facilities poor maintenance and insecurity of science equipment (if any), to poor planning, lack of finance, lack of regular supervision and monitoring, low curriculum implementation, lack of instructional materials to mention but a few. The attempts at solving these problems lead to the use of innovative teaching-learning methods. These innovative learning methods involve the use of organized combination and utilization of people, materials, facilities, equipment and procedures to achieve the desired instructional objectives. The question is; are these new innovations applicable in today’s educational system?

Infact, the condition of primary schools system (government owned) in Nigeria is not what to take home about. These primary schools seem to be abandoned. Teaching and learning process is still going on without instructional materials to the detriment of the learner. The level of 28 availability and the rate of utilization, maintenance of these instructional materials in primary schools is greatly very insignificant. This was affirmed by Akubue (1993) who noticed that most of these instructional materials mentioned are not available in schools and even where they are available they are scarcely used. Classroom observation of teachers while they teach revealed that Social Studies teachers do not use instructional materials. Thus, primary schools in Enugu metropolis are not an exception. At the primary school levels, greater percentage of instructional process is based on rote memorization. Many classroom teachers still prefer the traditional chalk-talk or telling mode of instruction to concrete-oriented practical method of using instructional materials during teaching and learning process. In Enugu metropolis, the adverse effect of non-availability and application of these instructional materials is widely observed in the 68 government primary schools. The researcher took time to visit some of these primary schools in Enugu metropolis and discovered that the level of availability of these instructional materials is very scanty. Since this is the condition of the primary schools, how can the curriculum of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) be well implemented for the attainment of the already stated goals. How are these instructional materials acquired? Are they effectively utilized during teaching-learning processes? Are they properly stored and maintained where available? To what extent do teachers make improvisation of these materials when they are not available for effective teaching learning to take place in their schools? These questions invoke the interest of the researcher to embark on this research study.

A close look at schools around its today goes to prove a popular opinion or view that the majority of teachers do not use instructional materials effectively for teaching and learning of Economics Education. Tahir (2002) admitted that there is a general lack of instructional materials. Ekpo (2004) aptly declared that instructional materials are often used to compensate for the inadequacies of sense organ or to reinforce the capacity of the dominant organs. They must be relevance for the realization of the intensive of curriculum. Thus there is a short fall in the availability of instructional materials and teachers are unable to improvise with what is available in our environment in other to effectively derive home the lesson thought. Therefore, the inadequacies of sense organs are not compensated. Oforah (2009) state that the outcome of committee of STAN were pupils textbooks, teachers guides etc while Tauari (1998) states that the commission for now can only supply exercise books, chalks and such minor things. Instructional materials are grossly inadequate for effective teaching and learning. Furthermore, Tyler (1950) in his opinion explained that Economics Education Department should have a well organized instructional material corner, units or room where some of the following could be found. Verbal symbols (oral or written), recordings, visual symbols for stimulating interest, regalia the real thing or authentic materials Dale (1959), Television, it made educational experiences which are beyond the reach of the classroom available to the students.

The purpose of this study are to:
1. Determine the extent of the use of instructional materials in effective teaching and learning of Economics Education in the study area.
2. Identify the problems associated with the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of Economics Education in the study area.
3. Enlighten people on the use of instructional materials in effective teaching and learning of Economics Education in the study area.

This study will be of significance to the following:
1. It will serve as a reference point on the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of Economics Education.
2. The study will bring awareness to the government curriculum planners and other stakeholders in the area on the necessity in provision of adequate instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of Economics Education.
3. It will make educational experience which is beyond the reach of classroom available to student of Economics Education.
4. It will provide a guide to the appropriate use of instructional materials in effective teaching and learning of Economics Education.
5. The study will also create awareness on the benefit of the use of instructional materials in effective teaching and learning of Economics Education.

1. To what extent is the use of instructional materials effective for teaching and learning of Economics Education?
2. What are the problems that are associated with the use of instructional materials in the effective teaching and learning of Economics Education?
3. How much awareness is being created for the people on the use of instructional materials in effective teaching and learning of Economics Education?



The following null hypotheses were postulated to guide the conduct of this study;

 Ho1 there is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers and students on the instructional materials that are available in teaching Economics Education in senior secondary schools in Agwu local government area;

 Ho2 availability of instructional materials have no significant influence on the performance of students Economics Education in senior secondary schools in Agwu local government area;

 Ho3 there is no significant difference in the opinion of the respondent on the teachers use of instructional materials in teaching Economics Education in senior secondary schools in Agwu local government area;

 Ho4 there is no significant difference in the opinions of the respondents on the teachers‟ improvisation of instructional material in teaching of Economics Education in senior secondary schools in Agwu local government area.



Few selected schools in Agwu Local Government area were studied. This will be made up of combination of government owned schools. The names of the government owned schools includes: C.S.S. Mmaku, Rosary High School Awgu and Boys Secondary School Awgu. While the private owned schools includes: Presentation secondary school Awgu and Alpha secondary school Awgu. This scope of study are selected/chosen so as to help solve financial limitation/problems.

Conceptual And Operational Definition
Instructional materials – conceptual – Teaching aids which can also be referred to as instructional aids, teaching materials which appeal to all sense and felling and aid learning.
Operational – Course of study, syllabus, curriculum, bulletins, guides, handbooks, research reports, audio visual aids and other materials which serve as a teacher’s educational function.
Economics Education – Conceptual – An interdisciplinary field of study which help families and individuals to understand and adopt to the social Economics Education, culture and technological changes.




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