INFLUENCE OF NUTRITION AND BODY CONDITION AT FIRST MATING ON THE REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF GILTS IN THE HUMID
Two experiments were conducted at the piggery unit of the Department of Animal Science
Farm, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, from July 2007 to March 2009, to determine the effect
of nutrition and body condition at first mating on the reproductive performance of gilts. The
first experiment evaluated the effects of feeding different combinations of protein and energy
diets on age at onset of first observed oestrus, growth rate, backfat reserve and body
condition score of the gilts from weaning to puberty. Fifty-four (54), eight week old weaner
gilts were used for this trial.
They were randomly assigned to nine experimental treatment
diets having different combinations of protein (16%, 18% and 20% crude protein) and energy
(2800 kcal/kg, 3000kcal/kg and 3200kcal/kg) with six (6) gilts per treatment. The gilts in
each treatment were housed in pairs making up three (3) replicates per treatment. Estrus
detection was carried out twice daily at 0800hr and 1600hrs in the presence of mature boar
beginning from the age of five months. Blood samples were collected from two pigs per
treatment by humane puncture of the ear vein for haematological and biochemical analysis. In
addition, two (2) gilts from each treatment were randomly selected, slaughtered and their
reproductive organs excised and examined.
Linear body measurements (body length, chest
girth, height at withers and flank-to-flank) were also recorded. Data collected were analyzed
according to factorial arrangement of treatments in a completely randomized design (CRD)
whereas stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was used to generate prediction
equations between body weight and linear body measurements. In experiment 2, eighteen
(18) gilts with different body conditions and backfat thickness were selected and assigned to
experimental treatments with six gilts per treatment. All the gilts were weighed and mated
twice at the second observed estrus.
Pregnancy was confirmed by the gilt not returning to
heat after 21 days of observation for signs of heat after breeding. Gilts were fed 2.1 kg of an
18% CP diet daily throughout gestation. Their feed was increased to 3.0 kg of feed daily
during lactation until weaning. Gilts were monitored and their reproductive indices recorded
throughout gestation and lactation.
The pre-weaning performances of their piglets were also
recorded until weaning at day 35. Data collected were subjected to one way analysis of
variance (ANOVA) for a completely randomized design (CRD). Results of the first
experiment indicated that diet containing 3000kcal/kg or 3200kcal/kg metabolizable energy
and 18% crude protein was the optimum required for gilts to grow faster and reach the
minimum threshold of age, body weight, backfat reserve and body condition necessary for
early attainment of first oestrus and future reproductive processes.
On the other hand, the
result also showed that when pork of a moderate fatness (lean pork) is in demand, gilts should
be fed diets having 2800kcal/kg of metabolisable energy and either 16 or 18% crude protein.
High coefficient of determination (R2) values of 0.96, 0.95, 0.93 and 0.45, respectively, were
recorded between body (Y) weight and body length (BL), heart girth (HG), flank-to-flank
(FF) and height-at-withers (HW) measurements. Prediction equations for body weight of the
gilts were, Y = 0.83 x BL – 33.53, Y = 1.07 x HG – 37.86, Y = 1.22 x FF – 37.14 and Y =
0.86 x HW – 14.83. Results of the multiple linear regression showed that with effective
management, farmers, researchers and prospective pig buyers can use the prediction
equations for body length, heart girth and flank-to-flank measurements to easily estimate the
body weight of their pigs especially, during selection, drug administration and/or
determination of market weight and prices.
In the second experiment, results showed that
body condition of gilts at mating affected their gestation weight gain, lactation body weight
losses, litter size at birth and weaning, growth rate of their piglets, pre-weaning mortality and
weaning-to-estrus intervals, etc in favour of gilts with normal and fat body conditions. It was
concluded that in any commercial pig industry where the management is interested in
increasing sow lifetime productivity, replacement gilts should be scored for body condition