Mass Media As An Instrument Of Political Mobilization.Effects Of News Commercialization On The Public

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The various literature studies intended to the mass media role in the national development and this clear in the area of political leadership.

In this study, the researcher decided to draw home the Tourism that without a national political consciousness and viable political participation resulting in good leadership, there could be no genuine national development.

The mass media is the fourth estate of government had been assigned the various responsibilities in the society including the watch role, the educator and entertainer of the various segments of the people.

The role of the mass media as an instrument of political mobilization in the modern of more or less formalized institutions that deals with communication of al types.

Normally, this required considerable capitals as the case with the radio, television and publishing houses.  Necessarily, they have to carter for the mass audience.

For this reason, those who control the mass media usually suggest that they have the ability and capacity to manipulate and mobilize the people during the transition era.

The alternation of primary social relationship under the impact of industrialization has left the population and social  lacking in sense of group identity  and social control.

The Nigeria democratic system having been bastardized and destroyed by certain disgruntled elements, look into the mass media as the way out to correct the abnormally and injustice the Nigeria democratic dispensation.  This work tried to identify the functions, problems and prospects of the mass media of communication and equally highlights their ability to carry out this enormous responsibility to an enviable height in the mobilization of the people towards a viable and sustaining democratic polity.

The work highlights the impacts of the mass media in informing educating and entertaining the masses towards polity. It is hoped that the findings and recommendations suggested in this work would have a lean way an ending and lasting political culture.



1.1              Background of the study

1.2              Statement of research problem

1.3              Objectives of the study

1.4              Significance of the study

1.5              Research questions

1.6              Research hypothesis

1.7              Conceptional and operational definitions

1.8              Limitation s of the study

1.9              Theoretical frame work



2.1              Literature review

2.2              Theoretical review

2.3              Summary of literature




3.1              Research method

3.2              Research design

3.3              Research sample

3.4              Research instruments

3.5              Method of data analysis




4.1              Results

4.2              Analysis of data

4.3              Discussion of data




5.1              Summary

5.2              Conclusion

5.3              Recommendation




1.0              INTRODUCTION


This research touches on the various aspect of the mass media as instruments of political mobilization. In other words, it explores into the mass media as a mobilization agency during the political transition period.

It is thus, an important assumption of the work that a systematic study of political mobilization by mass media, should include an examination and the nature of operation of the mass media of communication in the Enugu state broadcasting service (ESBS) Enugu.

The mass media generally referred to both the print(s) and electronic media as supported in section 22 of the 1989 constitution of Nigeria.

The press, radio, television and other agencies of the mass media should at all times be free to uphold the fundamental objectives and highlights the responsibility and accountability of the government to the people.

The role of the mass media according to General Abacha in his maiden independence broadcast on the 1st October 1995 was to unform, educate and entertain the citizen.

Onyishi (1996) while highlighting on the role of the mass media in democracy notes that the press not only sustains the democracy principles but also end with transaction period.  The media should help an ushering in democracy they should play a crucial role in nurturing and sustaining the success or failure of our practice of democratic government. To large extent, their success depends on how well the mass media carries out their function as the mid wife of democracy.

This research therefore is intended to investigate how far the mass media had fulfilled this allowed obligation.  It is hoped that the result of the work will be useful to media practitioners in the proper performance of their duties.


In democracies, the mass media are the watch dog of the people. The citizen are usually mobilized and  unformed to created awareness on the political culture.

By political culture, I refer to a system of politic in which sovereignty is vested on the people rather than a small clique, or an oligarchy, a political arrangement that places emphasis on the accountability of polity where the rule of law, majority rule and constitutionalism is the basic guiding principle.

Perhaps, it could be argued that the political crisis that pervaded our recent past points to the fact that most of our people are ignorant of an apathetic towards the country’s observe that in Nigeria electioneering  and voting pattern cannot be validated, in the voting pattern of Nigerians and the possible estimation of the voter attitude towards political


The level of political participation in Nigerian and Enugu state in particular seems to be very low.  Also the political crisis occurring in this country has equally been attributed to several factors.  The purpose of this study is to identify the reasons or reasons that have contributed to this low political participations in Nigeria politics.

In doing so, what usually comes to mind is to ask the question what is the reason for the low political participation in Nigeria politics and equally the causes of the constant political crisis? As usually, it may be traced to several factors like low level of awareness and tribalism, how can this awareness be obtained? This will lead us to this research topic.

Therefore, this study is intended to inquire into how political participation in Nigeria politics and equally trace the genesis of the political crisis that identifies the factors responsible and solution  sought.


It is expected that this study would be immense benefit to the government, the mass media and the people of this country.  This study will highlight the importance of the mass media as a vehicle for  political mobilization in a transition era.

Through the mass media, especially the radio and television Nigeria might have a chance of having a viable political culture and help to choose a leadership that will inculcate a viable and sustaining democracy.  This will also give us a society blessed with.

As right put by GORAN HEDEBRO- “communication media can create a climate of change by including a new valves, attitude and models or behaviour favourable to mobilization, teach new skill  act as a multipher of resources of knowledge, raise level of participation in decision-making, help people to find new norms and harmony in period of transition, change the power structure of the society by giving knowledge to this masses, create sense of nations, lead to increase political activity or participation, promote people’s need satisfying development as self perpetuating process.


The basic question posted as a result of these problem includes the following:

a.         Have the media been participating in elections in Nigeria and Enugu state in particular.

b.         Has ethnic problem been hindering the smooth conduct of election in this country?

c.         Can the masses in the country be mobilized and informed using mass media organ?

d.         What role has the mass media played to ensure a viable democracy?

1.6       HYPOTHESES

hypothesis one

Hoi: There is effect of mass illiteracy on electronics media impact during                political mobilization.

H01: There is no effect of mass illiteracy on electronics media impact during          political mobilization.


H02:    Govt. ownership of mass media (ESBS) has effected political          mobilization

H02: Govt. ownership of mass media (ESBS) has effected political             mobilization

Hypothesis three

H03: ESBS has been efficient in promoting people’s interest in politics during        political campaigns

H03: ESBS has been efficient in promoting people’s interest in politics during        political campaigns

Hypothesis four

H04: Ethnic problem has not been hindering the smooth conduct of electron in      Nigeria


conceptual and operational definitions

1.         ROLE

a.         Conceptual: Persons or duties in an undertaking.

b.         Operational:    Function or part of the duty the mass media dot o  contribute national political consciousness and development.

2.         MASS MEDIA

b.         Conceptual:     Existing channel through which government and its citizens communication to each other or means through which greater number of people are reached spontaneously with information.

3.         MOBILZE    

a.         Conceptual:     Render something or some body move form initial position.

b.         Operational:    Cause people to be actively involved in politics, to be politically minded and conscious and to believe in political process and result.

4.         CENSORSHIP:        

a.         Conception: Process of finding faults from what ever somebody else does

b.         Operational:    Unlimited supervision of the activities of the press by those news and commentaries with stipulated laws to punish what seems to the government as conditions.


The entire study of mass communication is based on the premises that there are effects from the media, yet it seems to be the issue on which there is certainly and least agreement.  This apparent uncertainty is the more surprising since every day experience provides countless examples of small effects.

Consequently, we live in a world where political and government processes are based on the assumption that we know what is going on from press and television and radio.  There are few people who can trace on piece of information or opinion to a  sources in the media, and much money and effort is spent in directing media to achieve such affect. It is on the basis that mass media effects theory were carefully examinational to support this research work since mobilization has to do with the effectiveness of the media.

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