PRODUCTION OF A HIGH QUALITY BAR SOAP AND COMPARE WITH DETERGENT
Background of Study
A soap is a salt of a compound, known as a fatty acid. A soap molecule has a long hydrocarbon chain with a carboxylic acid group on one end, which has ionic bond with metal ion, usually sodium or potassium. The hydrocarbon end is non polar which is highly soluble in non polar substances and the ionic end is soluble in water. The structure of the soap molecule is represented below:
The cleaning action of soaps because of their ability to emulsify or disperse water-insoluble materials and hold them in the suspension of water. This ability is seen from the molecular structure of soaps. When soap is added to water that contains oil or other water-insoluble materials, the soap or detergent molecules surround the oil droplets. The oil is, dissolved in the alkyl groups of the soap molecules while the ionic end allows it to be dissolved in water. As a result, the oil droplets are to be dispersed throughout the water and can be washed away.
A number of things affect the soap-making process and the quality of this soap produced. The characteristics of this soap depend on the quality of oil, and the amounts of the caustic soda and water used to make it. The speed of the reaction between the oil and the caustic soda is influenced by free fatty acid content of the oil, the heat of the components before mixing, and how vigorously the mixing is to be done. Free fatty acid contents, vigorous mixing, and heat, speed up the given soap-making process.
Castile soap: a mild soap originally made in Spain with pure olive oil. Today many “castile” soaps are made with other vegetable oils. Castile is agood cleanser, producing a rich lather.
Cream soaps: soaps containing cold cream materials, and moisturizers. Cream soaps are good for dry and delicate skin
Deodorant soap are soaps to which antibacterial agents have been added to reduce odor-causing bacteria.
Floating soaps: soaps which have air bubbles incorporated have low density. This causes the bar to float.
Hypo-allergenic soaps: Mild formula soaps, low in potent irritants. They generally produce a poor lather.
Milled soaps: these are the most commonly used, mass produced soaps. Milling is referred to the mixing of colour and soap flakes.
Oatmeal soap: A rough textured soap to which oatmeal has been added as a mild abrasive and lather. Good for and normal skin.
A good soap is biodegradable when it does not contain chemicals that cannot be made to their natural elements. Neither does it contain chemicals that can be harmful to the environment or cause undue destruction to the environment.
- A good soap gets dissolved easily and remove stains from the clothes, human skin or any material being cleaned.
- It gets dissolved in water and produces enough suds.
- It gives a clear and sparkling kind of cleanliness.
- It gives a pleasant smell.
- A good soap does not leave sticky traces on the clothes or on the skin.
- It has a good color that is even and does not streak.
- It disinfects and kills germs.
- It does not damage the fibers or textiles.
Statement of Problem
Soaps are the sodium salts or potassium salts of stearic acids or any other fatty acids. They are prepared by the saponification process, which is, reacting the oil which contains triglycerides with caustic soda (NaOH) to give the soap. However different oils have different composition of fatty acids which are responsible for different properties of soaps made out of them. In the present work 5 different types of oils are taken. They are blended in various ratios to prepare 14 different samples of soap. Different properties of these samples were analyzed to see which soap is the best one. The cleansing and lathering properties of all samples were compared. The blend of coconut oil and castor oil at 3:1 ratio is found out to be the best with 76.8% of TFM and 89.46% of yield. The best blend is analyzed for various properties and they were compared with that given in the literature. The saponification values, iodine values of coconut oil and castor oil were found out and these values were also found for the blend. It was found that the blend was having SAP value of 230.4 and iodine value of 40 which are higher than the individual values. Thus soap prepared using blend of both these oils has better properties than the soaps prepared by individual oils.
Purpose of Study
The sole aim of this research work is to produce a high quality of bar soaps and compare with detergent. The major aspects of this project deals with quality control processes in the production of a high quality bar soaps.
In soap production, cold process was used and this was found out to be the most effective means of production considering several factors. In the production of bar soaps, palm kernel oil was used instead of fallow or grease. This is because palm kernel has a low titre value and gives a quicker lather and the fallow or grease gives a high titre value which produce soap that is slow to dissolve at low temperature. Different formulations were made and it was found out that the best ratio for high quality soap is 2:1 of palm kernel to caustic soda respectively. Carrying out test on soap produced were saponification value of P.K.O to be 248.24 refractive index 1.45, free fatty acid value of 1.56, acid value of 3.5, moisture content of soap 35.29%, percentage free alkaline 0.4% alcohol insoluble matter of 1.43% and PH value of 8.80 at a temperature reading of 30.00.
The synthetic detergent which was developed to replace the soapy detergent has a better quality. It was prepared by a sulphonation reaction when this reaction is carried out, a detergent paste is formed which when builders and other additives were added, it then form detergent which was size reduced and seized.
The sieved detergent was dried by solar energy. From the project, it was discovered that (STPP) helps the detergent to reduce water hardness sequestering calcium ion and heavy metal ion water, could increase the cleaning action of detergent. And also the hydrogen peroxide acts as stain removal due to its bleaching action, the CMC acts as anti-redeposition agent.
The high quality bar soap was found to contain certain materials which limit the formation of scum in hard water and this ascertained that the synthetic detergent is not more effective than bar soap when washing and moreover bar soap does not change the colour of a material when washing but detergent does by bleaching the colour.
Significance of Study
This study will provide information for the related authorities and regulatory bodies interested in the research related to high quality bar soap production and comparism with detergent. This will provide a basis for researchers who might investigate in this field/subject matter in the future as well as contribute to the existing body of knowledge.