REDUCING UNEMPLOYMENT THROUGH THE CO OPERATIVE MOVEMENT (A CASE STUDY OF CO-OPERATIVE FEDERATION OF ANAMBRA STATE) (COFAS)
The study was conducted to examine how unemployment can be reduced through the cooperative movement (A Case Study of Co-operative Federation of Anambra State), In the course of this investigation, research objective and hypothesis were formulated. Both primary and secondary data were collected, and data were then presented in a tabular form. Based on the above, the findings on the topic are as follows: Staff/employee of the sampled cooperative are averagely qualified for their various jobs and they are given opportunities for further training by the cooperative societies. Employee of the sampled cooperative are averagely paid with some necessary allowances. Co-operative societies absorb about 35% of school leavers yearly. There is a continuous education both to the members and the whole public. The researcher’s recommendations include these: Government should make it compulsory for every establishment to have its own cooperative. Government should set up more cooperative banks to give loans to individuals and groups that are prospecting to establish cooperative. In conclusion the researcher deemed it necessary that every hand must be on desk to encourage the establishment of cooperative enterprises, since it is now obvious that the only option left for us is to adopt the socio- economic model of mutual self help.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitations of the study
1.7 Definition of Terms
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Definition of Unemployment
2.2 Types Of Unemployment
2.3 Causes Of Unemployment
2.4 Benefits Of Co-Operative Society
2.5 Role of cooperative in reducing unemployment
2.6 Consequences of Unemployment
3.0 Research Design and Methodology
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Area of Study
3.3 Population of Study
3.4 Sampling Technique and Sample Size
3.5 Source of Data
3.6 Method of Data Collection
3.7 Administration of Instrument
3.8 Method of Data Analysis
4.1 Presentation and Analysis of Data
4.2 Test of Hypothesis
Summary of Findings, Recommendations And Conclusion
5.1 Summary of Findings
The unemployment rate in Nigeria was last reported at 23.9 percent in 2012. Historically, from 2006 until 2012, Nigeria Unemployment Rate averaged 14.60 Percent reaching an all time high of 23.90 Percent in December of 2012 and a record low of 5.30 Percent in December of 2006. The unemployment rate can be defined as the number of people actively looking for a job as a percentage of the labour force. This year 2012 the Federal government budgeted over N50 billion deal with unemployment yet, unemployment increases on daily basis. Both the state and federal governments are lunching out a lot of programmes, on small scale business enterprise, yet unemployment is increasing. There is vast unemployment in Nigeria and Anambra State in particular. After many years of democracy there are graduates of 15 (fifteen) years standing, that room the street in search of white-collar jobs that don’t exist. Unemployment is still on the increased irrespective of federal government budget to curb the scourge. However, the fact remains that no country can succeed in providing a reasonable standard of living for her citizens. It is now obvious that the only option left to us is to adopt the socio – economic model of mutual self help whereby unemployed individuals can voluntarily join together to achieve a common goal through the formation of co-operative enterprise. Co-operative we know plays multiple roles as institutional frame work for allocating scarce resources, stimulating economic growth and enhancing economic welfare. It raises the income level of the people by providing income earning opportunities. Many reasons have been given for this critical situation concerning jobs, and such reasons include rapid growth of population in our country, the movement of capital to the cheap labour and the impact of new technology. This study will be made up of five chapters, chapter one deals with the introductory part of the study. It will touch on vital subjects such as statement of the problems, purpose of the study, scope of the formulation of hypotheses, theoretical framework, limitation of the study. Chapter two highlights the literature review which is other peoples view on the subject matter, the study will attempt to strike a balance between observation and theoretical concepts and feeling of COFAS in reducing unemployment. Chapter three will deal with the areas covered by the study and the method employed in the analysis of the data that will be collected through research questionnaire, design, selection of sample size, sources of research materials, the research instruments and treatment of data. Chapter four will analyze the collected data and presented them in a simple form as to enhance proper understanding and provide correct statistical testing for the postulated hypotheses in the study using the chi-square. Chapter five will bring about together the summary of findings, incorporating the observed data to make recommendations on how to government will facility the activities of cooperatives societies in other state a part from COFAS. On which recommendation s will be made.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Co-operative is a basis for overall information of citizenry social and economic problems. According to (Berko (1987:), co-operative society is a voluntary and democratic association of persons, with variable membership and variable capital whose members pooled themselves and their resources together on mutual and self help basis to form a business enterprise which seeks to solve the socio-economic problem(s) of these members by directly providing goods and services to them in their capacity as either the owner/customer or owner – employees of the cooperative enterprise.
According to (Amahalu (2005 :2), cooperative is defined as an association usually incorporated with economic aims, formed by or for persons or co operations, having common needs, approximately equal voice in management, making approximately equal or proportional contributions to capital, deriving proportionate services and benefits from it.
Co-operative in order to promote the welfare of their members involve themselves in most tangible projects like building of houses, building of schools, building of hospitals, building of recreation centers, markets and building of industries. Co-operative serves as a hold to company and local development agency; it also seek to provide a community owned structure.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
Today, there is vast unemployment in Nigeria and Anambra state in particular. After many years of democracy there are graduates of 15 (fifteen) years standing, that room the street in search of white-collar jobs that don’t exist. Unemployment is still on the increased irrespective of federal government budget to curb the scourge. In the year 2000 the Federal government budgeted N10 billion and N20 billion in 2001 to deal with unemployment yet, unemployment increases on daily basis. Both the state and federal governments are lunching out a lot of programmes, on small scale business enterprise, yet unemployment is increasing.
However, the fact remains that no country can succeed in providing a reasonable standard of living for her citizens. It is now obvious that the only option left of us is to adopt the socio – economic model of mutual self help whereby unemployed individuals can voluntarily join together to achieve a common goal through the formation of co-operative enterprise.
Co-operative we know plays multiple roles as institutional frame work for allocating scarce resources, stimulating economic growth and enhancing economic welfare. It raises the income level of the people by providing income earning opportunities. Many reasons have been given for this critical situation concerning jobs, and such reasons include rapid growth of population in our country, the movement of capital to the cheap labour and the impact of new technology.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This research has the major objectives of reducing unemployment through the co – operative movement (A case study of co-operative federation of Anambra state)
Specific Objectives Include:
1. To identify the socio – economic characteristic associated with cooperative societies.
2. To identify the support for modern farming investment for industrial development and expansion of market through cooperative movement.
3. To examine the volume of unemployment created by cooperative society.
4. To identify the problems of cooperative movement in creating job opportunities in Nigeria and Anambra state in particular.
5. To make recommendations on how to improve cooperative societies in order to meet the demand of reducing unemployment.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS.
- Do co-operative societies exist in Anambra state ?
- To what extent have co – operatives contributed in socio – economic development
- The contributions of co – operative societies
- The problem of …………………………..
- The solutions have to improve
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
There is the need for reducing unemployment in our society and in Anambra state particular and the only way out is through cooperative movement. This analytical study shows the extent of some particular proposals for solutions to these problem of unemployment in Anambra state and also serve as a basis for offering, informed suggestions for improvement on its social-economic development and growth.
It is envisaged that the findings, suggestions and recommendations of this study will be beneficial to all members and non members of co-operative society and government as well. Specifically, this research will go a long way to encourage people to join co-operative society.
To further the scope of this study, discussion and the possible means of efficient implementation will be based on the followings:
- Enhance economic, social and cultural situation of strata within limited resources and opportunities as well as to promote their initiatives.
- Improve social condition and provide social services in the areas of housing, education, electricity, health and communication.
- Increase personal and national wealth through campaigning against waste. It also impact the element for democratic control of economic activity.
Therefore, since cooperative thinks about the enhancement of their members well being as their prime ideology, it has to work towards the achievement of this target. Also this research study is primarily concerned in addition to the formal pronouncement of cooperative distribution on how to make them functional that is providing as social-economic development and growth thereby creating job opportunities as the prime ingredient to achieving its aim.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
A. cooperative :- according to Amahalu (2005:2)
cooperative is defined as an association usually incorporated with economic aims, formed by or for persons or cooperatives, having common needs, approximately equal or proportional contributions to capital, deriving proportionate service and benefit form it.
B. Unemployment:- According to Ewa Udu et al (1989: 75) unemployment is defined as a situation in which persons capable and willing to work are unable to find suitable paid employment . one cannot say precisely the number of employment people in our country (Nigeria)
C. Management:- is the activity of running and controlling a business or similar organization
D. Business:- is the activity of making, buying, selling or supplying goods or services for money.
E. Enterprise:- is the development of business by the people of a country rather than by the government
D. Movement:- is an act of moving from place to another or of moving some thing from one place to another .
F. Initiative:- means a new plan for dealing with a particular problem or for achieving a particular purpose