Assessment Of The Level Of Practice Of Personnel Radiation Monitoring In Diagnostic Radiology Centres In Lagos State

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Assessment Of The Level Of Practice Of Personnel Radiation Monitoring In Diagnostic Radiology Centres In Lagos State

Radiation has been employed in the diagnosis of various diseases and treatment since its discovery in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen1. There are many types of ionizing radiation available for either treatment or diagnosis worldwide. Despite wide radiation applications in medicine, it can be hazardous if not properly handled. After interaction of ionizing radiation with biological tissues through various mechanisms, the ions produced by such interactions can affect normal biological processes. Improper protection against ionizing radiation can lead to death, cancer, skin burn, cataract, infertility and genetic effects1.
The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommended2 a system for limiting the doses received by radiation-exposed workers. Its report addresses radiation safety practices in industrial and medical institution, control of radionuclide in the environment, protection of the public and assessment of radiation risk.
It is essential to monitor radiographers and other radiology staff as they discharge their duties to the public. This is of great importance to the radiographers in their effort to protect themselves, patients and the general public from the untoward effect of excessive radiation. It is clearly sensible for those involved in use of ionizing radiation in diagnostic radiology to have an appreciation of the possible risks involved. For radiographers, measurement of radiation doses received at periodic intervals represents a way of monitoring doses to ensure that they are within safe occupational limits.
Personnel radiation monitoring is essential to ensure that dose limits for staff is not exceeded. The dose limits for staff were published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 1977 and subsequently in the ionizing radiation regulations. A downward revision was done in 1991 by re-evaluation of data on risks. The effective annual dose limit was formerly 50mSv and the newly adopted effective annual dose limit is 20mSv averaged over five years. The downward review of annual dose limit was to put stricter control over the use of ionizing radiation in Medicine and minimize possible hazards, especially the stochastic effects.
Film badges, thermoluminiscent dosimeters and pocket ionizing dosimeters are the recommended radiation measuring devices for use by exposed radiation workers to monitor received radiation dose. Every worker is expected to wear his personal dosimeter always while working. The dosimeter readings are kept as records for every staff for the purpose of evaluating their radiation history and possible risks involved. The records help in improving radiation protection practices in clinical settings. At the Washington State University, employees who have not had a radiation monitoring badge before must apply for and receive one before starting work involving radiation exposure. Also, if the individual has worked with radiation in an institution other than Washington State University, he or she must complete and sign the release statement on radiation exposure history. Dosimetric records are kept and are required to be disclosed when workers change jobs. Personnel dosimetric records and monitoring are integral parts of radiography practice in Malaysia.
This research aims at evaluating and assessing the level at which the practice of use of personnel radiation monitoring devices is being carried out in both private and public diagnostic radiology centres in Lagos State.

Title Page


Approval Page




Table of content


Chapter 1


1:1 Introduction

1:2 Background of the Study

1:3 Statements of Problems

1:4 Objectives of the Study

1:5 Research Question

1:6 Study of the Hypothesis

1:7 Significance of the Study

1:8 Justification of the Study

1:9 Scope of the Study

1:10 Definition of Terms


Chapter 2

Literature Review

2:0 Introduction

2:1 Conceptual Clarification

2:2 Theoretical Framework

2:3 Literatures on the Subject Matter


Chapter 3

Research Methodology

3:0 Area of Study

3:1 Source of Data

3:2 Sampling Techniques

3:3 Method Data Collection

3:4 Method of Data Analysis

3:5 Reliability of Instrument

3:6 Validity of Instrument

3:7 Limitations of the Study


Chapter 4

Data Analysis

4:0 Introduction

4:1 Finding of the Study

4:2 Discussion of the Study

4:3 Summary


Chapter 5

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5:0 Summary of Findings

5:1 Conclusion

5:2 Recommendations

5:3 Proposal for Further Studies


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