This Research Work is on
The Effect Of Pterocarpus Mildbreadii Seed On Plasma HDL Cholesterol Of Albino Rat
This work was carried out to investigate the effects of pterocarpus mildbreadii seed on the HDL- level of albino rats.High density lipoprotein(HDL) is a fraction of cholesterol,which helps to transport cholesterol from peripheral of cell to the liver.High density lipoprotein is carried out to investigate cardio vascular diseases.Fresh oha seed (pterocarpus mildbreadii seed) was collected from Amokwe in udi local government Area Enugu state. They were dried at room temperature for about a month in an open laboratory space, groud into coarse form and weighed on an electrical weighing balance. 3% tween-80 was prepared by dissolving 3% tween -80 in 97ml of distilled water. The grounded pterocarpus mildbreadii was dissolve in the 3% tween-80.A total of sixteen wistar abino rats used for this analysis. The rats were divided into 4(four) groups. Group 1contain 4 rats and received 0.5 each of 3% tween-80. Group 2 contain 5 rats and were administered with 1400mg/kg b.w of pteridocarpus mildreadii solution Group 3 contain 3 rats and were administered with 2600mg/kg. b.w of pteridocarpus mildbreadii solution. Group 4 contain 4 rats and were administered with 500mg/kg. b.w. of Edmard MRT complex.
TABLE OF CONTENT
2.0 Literature review
2.2 Classification of lipids
2.6 Fatty acids
2.7 Types of fatty acids
2.8Unsaturated fatty acids
2.9 Essential fatty acids
2.12 Dietary source & effect of Chole
2.13 Functions of Cholesterol in the
2.14 lipoprotein metabolism
2.15 very low density lipoprotein (VLDL
2.16 low density lipoprotein
2.17 Function of LDL
2.18 High density lipoprotein (HDL
2.19 Clinical significance
2.20 Fat soluble vitamin
2.21 Vitamin A
2.22 Vitamin D
2.23 Vitamin E
2.24 Vitamin K
2 .25 lipid storage in plants
2.26 lipid Body structure
2.27 Unusual fatty acids in seed triacylglyce
2.28 PProperties of lipids
2.29 Physical properties
2.30 Chemical properties
2.32 Roles of lipids
2.35 Nerve function
2.36 Energy source
2.37 Uses of oha seed (pterocarpus
3.1 Plant seed
4.1 Cholesterol activity
5.0 Discussion and conclusion
1.0 Pterocarpus mildbreadii are trees with edible parts successfully budded, pterocarpus species (P.Soyauxii and P. mildbeadii are reported to have different patterns of leaf flush, one spontanous and the other intermitted making the first suitable for commercial production and the second the home production (Okafor 1978). Pterocarpus mildbreadii being the major case study both the vegetable and the seeds.
The vegetable is majorly used in our various home for cooking. Pterocarpus mildbreadii (Oha seed) are not consumed by the people from the eastern part of Nigeria. So it cannot be majorly stated the content of this oha seed.
The demand for vegetable oils as a result of diminishing source of oils and fats creates the needs for new sources as well as exploiting sources that are currently unexploited in order to supplement the existing ones (Minzangi et al. 2011).
As industrialists continues to rely mostly on the popular vegetable oil like coconut oil, soyabeans oil, ground nut oil, palm oil etc. for the preparation and production of their various products.
Plant lipids also posses nutritive value and have an impact on human nutrition and the world economy.more than three quarters of the edible and industrial oils marketed annually are derived from seed and fruit triglycerol (Schimid & Ohlrogge, 2002). Seeds have nutritive and calorific value which makes them necessary in diets. They are good sources of edible oils and fats. The amount of energy provide by 1g of fat and oil when fully digested is more than twice as many joules of protein and carbohydrate do. Fats makes meals more satisfying, enrich its flavor and delay the unset of hunger (Odoemelan, 2005). Unfortunately, insufficient availability of animal protein and the costliness of available plant protein sources have also increased the need for research on revealing lesser known under-utilized legumes and oil seeds of nutritive value (Schimid & Ohlrogge, 2002).
The fats and oils used almost universally as stored form of energy in living organisms are derivatives of fatty acids (Nelson & Cox, 2005). The natural fat and oil are mixtures of glycerides and fatty acids belonging to a large group of water insoluble substances called lipids. Plants produced the majority of them including humans depends on these lipids as a major source of calories and fatty acids plant lipid also have substantial impact on the world economy and human nutrition. More than three-quarters of the edible and industrial oils marketed annually are derived from seed and fruit triglycerols.
This figures are particularly impressive given that on a whole organism basis, plants store more carbon as carbohydrates than as lipids. Some plants are not mobile and since photosynthesis provide fixed carbon on regular basis, plant requirement for storage lipids as an efficient, light weight energy reserve are less acute than that of animals (Schmid & Ohlrogge, 2002). World supplies of fats and oil are reported to come from vegetable sources (68.1%) animal fats (28.2%) and marine fats (3.8%). In Nigeria, there are abundant sources of lipids such as palm oil, coconut oil, cotton seed oil, soya bean oil, groundnut oil, etc. (Akpan et al. 2006).
Lipids are important biological molecules. These compounds are sparingly soluble in water and highly soluble in organic solvents such as ether, chloroform, turpentine, Benzene. E.t.c. They are divers in both structures and functions therefore do not share a common molecular structure. Lipids may be broadly defined as hydrophobic or amphiphilic small molecules; the amphiphilic nature of some lipids allows them to form structures such as vesicles, liposomes, or membranes in an aqueous environment. Lipids function in energy storage, cell membrane structure, protective of living surfaces and chemical signals.
2.2 CLASSIFICATION OF LIPIDS
Lipids classification based on their chemical nature includes the simple lipids, compound lipids, derived lipids and lipids complexed to other compounds.
SIMPLE LIPIDS:- Are those containing fatty acids and glycerol or other higher alcohols. Compounds that exist under this class are the
A. Neutral fats –Triglycerides
- True waxes
Vitamin A esters
Vitamin D esters
COMPOUNDS LIPIDS: These are fatty acids esterifies with an alcohol but in addition they contain other groups like the sulfate, nitrogen. Etc. common examples includes
A. phospholipids – Contain a phosphoric molecule and a fat molecules
B. Cerebroside –Contain a carbohydrates and a fat molecule.
C. Sulfolipids –Contain a sulfate radical.
DERIVED LIPIDS:- These compounds are derived from lipids or precursor of lipids. They include
A. fatty acids
B. fatty aldehydes
C. fatty alcohols
D. vitamins A,D,E,K
Triglycerides results from the reaction between glycerol and fatty acid. They are the major energy reserve and the principal neutral derivative of glycerol found in animals. These molecules consist of glycerol esterifies with three fatty acids. If all the three fatty acids group are the same, the molecule is called a simple triglycerides. Eg tristerylgcerol and trioleoylglycerol. Mixed triglycerol contain two or more different fatty acids. Monoacylglycerol and Diacylglycerol also exist, but they are less common than the triglycerol. A significant number of fatty acids in plants and animals exist in the form triglycendes. These are the most abundant class of lipids. Most animal and plant fats are composed of mixtures of simple and mixed triglycerides. Triglycerol are stored as oil in seeds of many types of plants, providing energy and biosynthetic precursors during seed germination (Nelson &S Cox, 2005). Triglycerides are rich in high reduced carbons and thus yield large amount of energy in oxidative reaction of metabolism. Complete oxidation of 1 gram of triglyceride yield about 17 kg /g (Grisham & Garrett, 2005).
Waxes are alcohol-based lipids that are extremely insoluble in water. If you have ever spilled your beverages on the wax paper wrapping of your sandwich, you have probably observed the way the liquid is repelled by the wax and forms beads. Because wax dose not dissolve in water, they form a thin layer over all the green tissue of plants that is both a chemical and physical barrier. This layer serve many purposes, for example to limit the diffusion of water and solutes, while permitting a controlled release of a volatiles that may deter pests or attract pollinating insects it provides protection from diseases and insects, and helps the plants resist drought. Waxes also have a water proofing and protective roles for insects.
Waxes can have a storage function, as in marine organisms and for example in the seeds of the jojoba plants. Bees use wax to produce the rigid structures of honey combs. The uropygial glands of birds secrets waxes, which they use to provide water-proofing for feathers (Christie, 2011).
These are the second most abundant class of lipids usually found in animal and plant cell membrane. Phospholipids contain a glycerol and fatty acids plus phosphoric acid and a low molecular weight alcohol. While fatty acids are typically composed of three fatty acids, phospholipids have two fatty acids. Phospholipids have water-hating “fails” -lovingandwater„heads “so that they helps protects our cellular machinery from the outside world. Examples of phospholipids found in the biological membrane are phosphatidylcholine (also known as PC, Gpcho or lecithin), phosphafidylethano lamine (Pt or Gpftn) and phosphatidylserine cps or Gpser).
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